An analysis of the temperature dependence of force, during steady shortening at different velocities, in (mammalian) fast muscle fibres
The effect of temperature on elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated with sinusoidal analysis technique in skinned rabbit psoas fibers. We studied the effect of MgATP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgATP binding step and cross-bridge detachment step at six different temperatures in the range 5-30 degrees C. Similarly, we studied the effect of MgADP on exponential process (C) to characterize the MgADP binding step. We also studied the effect of phosphate (Pi) on exponential process (B) to characterize the force generation step and Pi-release step. From the results of these studies, we deduced the temperature dependence of the kinetic constants of the elementary steps and their thermodynamic properties. We found that the MgADP association constant (K0) and the MgATP association constant (K1) significantly decreased when the temperature was increased from 5 to 20 degrees C, implying that nucleotide binding became weaker at higher temperatures. K0 and K1 did not change much in the 20-30 degree C range. The association constant of Pi to cross-bridges (K5) did not change much with temperature. We found that Q10 for the cross-bridge detachment step (k2) was 2.6, and for its reversal step (k-2) was 3.0. We found that Q10 for the force generation step (Pi-isomerization step, k4) was 6.8, and its reversal step (k-4) was 1.6. The equilibrium constant of the detachment step (K2) was not affected much by temperature, whereas the equilibrium constant of the force generation step (K4) increased significantly with temperature increase. Thus, the force generation step consists of an endothermic reaction. The rate constant of the rate-limiting step (k6) did not change much with temperature, whereas the ATP hydrolysis rate increased significantly with temperature increase. We found that the force generation step accompanies a large entropy increase and a small free energy change; hence, this step is an entropy-driven reaction. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the hydrophobic interaction between residues of actin and myosin underlies the mechanism of force generation. We conclude that the force generation step is the most temperature-sensitive step among elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, which explains increased isometric tension at high temperatures in rabbit psoas fibers.