Kinematics and aerodynamics of avian upstrokes during slow flight.

@article{Crandell2015KinematicsAA,
  title={Kinematics and aerodynamics of avian upstrokes during slow flight.},
  author={Kristen E Crandell and Bret W. Tobalske},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={2015},
  volume={218 Pt 16},
  pages={
          2518-27
        }
}
Slow flight is extremely energetically costly per unit time, yet highly important for takeoff and survival. However, at slow speeds it is presently thought that most birds do not produce beneficial aerodynamic forces during the entire wingbeat: instead they fold or flex their wings during upstroke, prompting the long-standing prediction that the upstroke produces trivial forces. There is increasing evidence that the upstroke contributes to force production, but the aerodynamic and kinematic… CONTINUE READING
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