Kinematics and Kinetics of Elite Windmill Softball Pitching

@article{Werner2006KinematicsAK,
  title={Kinematics and Kinetics of Elite Windmill Softball Pitching},
  author={Sherry L. Werner and Deryk G. Jones and John A. Guido and Michael E. Brunet},
  journal={The American Journal of Sports Medicine},
  year={2006},
  volume={34},
  pages={597 - 603}
}
Background A significant number of time-loss injuries to the upper extremity in elite windmill softball pitchers has been documented. The number of outings and pitches thrown in 1 week for a softball pitcher is typically far in excess of those seen in baseball pitchers. Shoulder stress in professional baseball pitching has been reported to be high and has been linked to pitching injuries. Shoulder distraction has not been studied in an elite softball pitching population. Hypothesis The stresses… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Biomechanics Related to Increased Softball Pitcher Shoulder Stress: Implications for Injury Prevention

TLDR
Elbow kinetics and angular velocity, as well as trunk positioning at foot contact, are associated with peak throwing shoulder distraction force in high school softball pitchers.

THE EFFECTS OF CONSECUTIVE SOFTBALL WINDMILL PITCHES ON COORDINATION PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY, MUSCULAR STRENGTH, AND PITCHING PERFORMANCE

Upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries occur at a similar rate in softball pitchers. Most of these injuries can be considered chronic in nature, which may result in symptoms being treated

Biceps Activity during Windmill Softball Pitching

TLDR
In female athletes, biceps brachii activity during the windmill pitch is higher than during an overhand throw and is most active during the 9-o'clock and follow-through phases of the pitch.

Softball pitching mechanics and shoulder injuries: a narrative review.

TLDR
Pitcher-specific training, cross-training, and whole-body conditioning should be incorporated into current training regimens to decrease the risk of shoulder injuries.

Effects of a Simulated Game on Pitching Kinematics in Youth Softball Pitcher.

TLDR
It was found that pitching a simulated game did result in altered pitching mechanics, meanwhile pitch volume was also correlated with pitching mechanics.

The Influence of an Active Glove Arm in Softball Pitching: A Biomechanical Evaluation.

TLDR
An active glove arm was predictive of a more efficient kinetic chain later in the windmill pitching motion and could possibly play a role in preventing injury by lessening pitching shoulder joint loads.

Differences in Lower Extremity Kinematics Between Collegiate and Youth Softball Pitchers

TLDR
Increased drive-knee flexion angle and angular extension velocity in collegiate compared with youth pitchers is found, although it is unknown if these differences were due to lack of experience or strength.

Comparison of Pelvis and Trunk Kinematics Between Youth and Collegiate Windmill Softball Pitchers

TLDR
Collegiate pitchers displayed a more posteriorly tilted pelvis and more laterally flexed trunk toward the glove side during the windmill pitching motion when compared with youth pitchers.

Fatigue and the Fast-Pitch Softball Pitcher: a Scoping Review

Required repetition and intensity of the windmill pitch motion are associated with many fatigue-related pitching injuries due to the large stresses placed on ligaments, muscles, and joints. Few

Decreased Shoulder and Elbow Joint Loads During the Changeup Compared With the Fastball and Curveball in NCAA Division I Collegiate Softball Pitchers

TLDR
The fastball and curveball placed similar stress on the upper extremity in collegiate softball pitchers, however, in comparison with the changeup, the fastball and Curveball placed increased pressure on the lower extremity and more research is needed to fully explain the differences seen.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES

Biomechanics of Youth Windmill Softball Pitching

TLDR
Excessive distraction stress and joint torques at the throwing-arm elbow and shoulder are similar to those found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries.

Relationships between Throwing Mechanics and Shoulder Distraction in Professional Baseball Pitchers

TLDR
Knowledge of joint ranges of motion, angular velocities, and joint-reaction forces can provide a scientific basis for improved preventive and rehabilitative protocols for baseball pitchers.

Biomechanics of windmill softball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms at the shoulder and elbow.

TLDR
The results indicated that high forces and torques were experienced at the shoulder and elbow during the delivery phase and the demand on the biceps labrum complex to simultaneously resist glenohumeral distraction and produce elbow flexion makes this structure susceptible to overuse injury.

Relationship between throwing mechanics and elbow valgus in professional baseball pitchers.

TLDR
The parameters of pitching mechanics related to elbow valgus may be assessed and optimized, if necessary, in order to decrease the magnitude of elbow stress in pitching.

Kinetics of Baseball Pitching with Implications About Injury Mechanisms

TLDR
Elbow and shoulder kinetics for 26 highly skilled, healthy adult pitchers were calculated using high-speed motion analysis and found that tension in the biceps tendon, due to muscle contraction for both elbow flexion torque and shoulder compressive force, may tear the antero superior labrum.

A kinematic analysis of an upper extremity ballistic skill: the windmill pitch.

: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the relative motions of the upper limb segments during the execution of the softball windmill pitch (2) to attempt to determine the effect of these

A kinematic analysis of an upper extremity ballistic skill: the windmill pitch.

  • M. AlexanderJ. Haddow
  • Education
    Canadian journal of applied sport sciences. Journal canadien des sciences appliquees au sport
  • 1982
TLDR
It was concluded that one of the critical factors in highly-skilled performance of ballistic skills is the ability to decelerate such segments, which likely require very strong eccentric contractions of antagonistic muscle groups.

Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Collegiate Softball Players.

OBJECTIVE: To construct interval throwing programs followed by a simulated game for collegiate softball players at all positions. The programs are intended to be used as functional progressions

Humeral Torque in Professional Baseball Pitchers

TLDR
Fractures are most likely to occur near the time of maximum shoulder external rotation when humeral torque peaks, suggesting that repetitive stress plays a role in humeral shaft fractures.

Dynamics of the shoulder and elbow joints of the throwing arm during a baseball pitch

TLDR
The roles of the torques in producing the joint forces and torques at the shoulder and elbow joints of intercollegiate varsity baseball pitchers using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method of three-dimensional cinematography are discussed.