Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.

@article{Sarnak2003KidneyDA,
  title={Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.},
  author={Mark J Sarnak and Andrew S. Levey and Anton C. Schoolwerth and Josef Coresh and Bruce F. Culleton and Lee Hamm and Peter A. McCullough and Bertram L Kasiske and Ellie Kelepouris and Michael John Klag and Patrick S Parfrey and Marc A. Pfeffer and Leopoldo Raij and David J. Spinosa and Peter W. F. Wilson},
  journal={Hypertension},
  year={2003},
  volume={42 5},
  pages={
          1050-65
        }
}
Chronic kidney disease1 (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD (Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most… 
National Kidney Foundation consensus conference on cardiovascular and kidney diseases and diabetes risk: an integrated therapeutic approach to reduce events.
TLDR
There is no consensus on how to assess and stratify risk for patients with kidney disease across subspecialties that commonly treat such patients, and the integrated management of hypertension, kidney disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and heart failure across disciplines is discussed.
The epidemic of chronic kidney disease.
  • C. Langman
  • Medicine
    MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • 2006
TLDR
The presence of CKD, whether it is manifested by proteinuria or reduced glomerular filtration rate, is now acknowledged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease events (CVD) in the most recent report from the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and in a position statement of the American Heart Association.
The epidemic of chronic kidney disease
TLDR
The presence of CKD, whether it is manifested by proteinuria or reduced glomerular filtration rate, is now acknowledged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease events (CVD) in the most recent report from the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and in a position statement of the American Heart Association.
Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk.
TLDR
The role of microalbuminuria (MAU)-proteinuria as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool for CVD in CKD risk assessment is discussed and the possible contributions of uremia-related, nontraditional risk factors are suggested.
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Under Conservative Treatment
TLDR
The main cause of kidney disease is diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephrosclerosis, both accelerated by smoking and dyslipidemia; thus, the higher risk of CVD among CKD patients is secondary to accumulation of risk factors.
Chronic Kidney Disease as a Coronary Artery Disease Risk Equivalent
TLDR
CKD itself is now considered an independent CVD risk factor and a coronary artery disease (CAD) equivalent for all-cause mortality and all patients at risk for CAD should be evaluated for kidney disease.
Cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease.
TLDR
National Kidney Foundation guidelines define chronic kidney disease (CKD) as persistent kidney damage and/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 for greater than three months.
Prevention of chronic kidney and vascular disease: toward global health equity--the Bellagio 2004 Declaration.
TLDR
Alarmed by the immense challenge to human morbidity and the economic burden of CKD and ensuing systemic cardiovascular disease, the International Society of Nephrology convened a multidisciplinary group of expert physicians and public health leaders from around the world to develop strategies to delay and avert this bleak future by effective prevention of CKd based on awareness, early detection, and effective treatment.
Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertensive Patients with Renal Dysfunction
TLDR
Recent clinical evidence indicates that a change in urinary albumin/protein excretion is a reliable index of response to antihypertensive treatment and a strong predictor of both renal and cardiovascular outcomes, and a multifactorial approach is highly recommended when dealing with hypertensive patients with renal dysfunction, in order to improve their cardiovascular prognosis.
Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease
TLDR
Screening for CKD in all patients with CVD is recommended, including computing an estimated GFR and evaluating for proteinuria using a spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio, and aggressive management of traditional cardiovascular risk factors should be employed.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 205 REFERENCES
Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic renal insufficiency.
TLDR
Traditional coronary risk factors are highly prevalent in CRI and vary with the level of renal function, however, the coronary point score does not appear to explain the extent of increased CHD risk in ESRD.
THE CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: Traditional Cardiac Risk Factors in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease
TLDR
This review focuses on individuals at all stages of CKD and discusses modifiable traditional risk factors, namely hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control, smoking, and physical inactivity.
Cardiovascular disease risk status in elderly persons with renal insufficiency.
TLDR
Renal insufficiency is a marker for elevated cardiovascular disease risk in community dwelling elderly adults and after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, the magnitude of association was substantially reduced.
Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly.
TLDR
The level of GFR is an independent risk factor for CVD, de novo CVD and all-cause mortality in the elderly, and a linear model best described the relationship between GFR and CVD.
Cardiovascular disease and chronic renal disease: a new paradigm.
  • M. Sarnak, A. Levey
  • Medicine
    American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • 2000
TLDR
A paradigm that CVD and CRD are outcomes of the same underlying disorders is proposed, and risk factor reduction strategies used to prevent CVD in the general population also be applied to patients with CRD, with the hope of preventing progression of renal disease, as well as preventing CVD.
Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Renal Insufficiency in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation
TLDR
CKD is associated with an increased risk of recurrent hospitalization, subsequent CABG, and mortality, independent of and additive to the risk associated with diabetes.
Congestive heart failure in dialysis patients: prevalence, incidence, prognosis and risk factors.
TLDR
The prevalence of CHF on starting ESRD therapy and the subsequent annual incidence was high and independent and significant risk factors for CHF recurrence were ischemic heart disease and systolic dysfunction, anemia during dialysis therapy and hypoalbuminemia.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.
TLDR
It is suggested that traditional risk factors are inadequate predictors of coronary heart disease in hemodialysis patients, while other factors did not correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in this cross-sectional study.
Congestive heart failure in renal transplant recipients: risk factors, outcomes, and relationship with ischemic heart disease.
TLDR
The incidence of CHF was considerably higher than that in the Framingham cohort, whereas the incidence of IHD was not, suggesting that renal transplantation might correspond more to a state of "accelerated heart failure" than to "ac Accelerated atherosclerosis".
Proteinuria as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in older people: a prospective study.
TLDR
Proteinuria is a significant, although relatively weak, risk factor for all-cause mortality in men and women, and for cardiovascular disease mortality in women.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...