Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease

@inproceedings{Sarnak2003KidneyDA,
  title={Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease},
  author={J. Sarnak and Andrew S. Levey and Anton C. Schoolwerth and Josef Coresh and Bruce F Culleton and L. Gabriel Navar L. Lee Hamm and Peter A. McCullough and Bertram L. Kasiske and Ellie Kelepouris and Michael J. Klag and Patrick S. Parfrey and Marc Pfeffer and Leopoldo Raij and David J. Spinosa and Peter W. F. Wilson},
  year={2003}
}
Chronic kidney disease1 (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD (Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most… CONTINUE READING

14 Figures & Tables

Connections & Topics

Mentioned Connections BETA
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
urine samples is recommended for assessment of proteinuria.3 GFR 60 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m is selected as the cutoff value for definition of CKD because it represents a reduction by more than half of the normal value of 125 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m in young men and women , and this level of GFR is associated with the onset of laboratory abnormalities characteristic of kidney failure , including increased prevalence and severity of several CVD risk factors .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
urine samples is recommended for assessment of proteinuria.3 GFR 60 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m is selected as the cutoff value for definition of CKD because it represents a reduction by more than half of the normal value of 125 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m in young men and women , and this level of GFR is associated with the onset of laboratory abnormalities characteristic of kidney failure , including increased prevalence and severity of several CVD risk factors .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
urine samples is recommended for assessment of proteinuria.3 GFR 60 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m is selected as the cutoff value for definition of CKD because it represents a reduction by more than half of the normal value of 125 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m in young men and women , and this level of GFR is associated with the onset of laboratory abnormalities characteristic of kidney failure , including increased prevalence and severity of several CVD risk factors .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
Chronic kidney disease1 ( CKD ) is a worldwide public health problem .
In 1998 , the National Kidney Foundation ( NKF ) Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Renal Disease issued a report emphasizing the high risk of CVD in CKD.5 This report showed that there was a high prevalence of CVD in CKD and that mortality due to CVD was 10 to 30 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population ( Figure 1 and Table 2).6–18 The task force recommended that patients with CKD be considered in the “ highest risk group ” for subsequent CVD events and that treatment recommendations based on CVD risk stratification should take into account the highest - risk status of patients with CKD .
urine samples is recommended for assessment of proteinuria.3 GFR 60 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m is selected as the cutoff value for definition of CKD because it represents a reduction by more than half of the normal value of 125 mL · min 1 per 1.73 m in young men and women , and this level of GFR is associated with the onset of laboratory abnormalities characteristic of kidney failure , including increased prevalence and severity of several CVD risk factors .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
The number of individuals with kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation exceeded 320 000 in 1998 and is expected to surpass 650 000 by 2010.1,2 There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of CKD ( Table 1).1,3 Kidney failure requiring treatment with dialysis or transplantation is the most visible outcome of CKD .
All Topics