Khipu Accounting in Ancient Peru

@article{Urton2005KhipuAI,
  title={Khipu Accounting in Ancient Peru},
  author={Gary Urton and Carrie Brezine},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={309},
  pages={1065 - 1067}
}
Khipu are knotted-string devices that were used for bureaucratic recording and communication in the Inka Empire. We recently undertook a computer analysis of 21 khipu from the Inka administrative center of Puruchuco, on the central coast of Peru. Results indicate that this khipu archive exemplifies the way in which census and tribute data were synthesized, manipulated, and transferred between different accounting levels in the Inka administrative system. 
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References

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The Cord Keepers
The Inkan empire did not have writing as it is usually understood. The Inkas kept track of information - including their complex social and political organization - on khipus, knotted cords of cotton
References and Notes
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly
疟原虫var基因转换速率变化导致抗原变异[英]/Paul H, Robert P, Christodoulou Z, et al//Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。
The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village
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The Khipu Database project, located in the Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, is described fully on the project Web site at http
  • The Khipu Database project, located in the Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, is described fully on the project Web site at http
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We thank NSF (grant BCS0408324); the Dumbarton Oaks Foundation; and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, for support; and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for G.U.’s
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