Khat – a controversial plant

@article{Balint2009KhatA,
  title={Khat – a controversial plant},
  author={E. Balint and G. Falkay and G. B{\`a}lint},
  journal={Wiener klinische Wochenschrift},
  year={2009},
  volume={121},
  pages={604-614}
}
SummaryKhat (Catha edulis) is a shrub or tree whose leaves have been chewed for centuries by people who live in the Eastern part of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It has recently turned up in North America and Europe, particularly among emigrants and refugees from countries such as Somalia, Ethiopia and Yemen. Khat contains a number of chemicals, among which are two controlled substances, cathinone (Schedule I) and cathine (Schedule IV). Both chemicals are stimulant drugs with effects… Expand
Psychopharmacosocial Aspects of Catha edulis Forsk (Fam. Celastraceae)
Khat [ Catha edulis Forsk (Celastraceae)], is an ancient plant associated with psychological, health and socioeconomic issues on humans.  K hat ( the flower of paradise) is a plant vastly used on theExpand
The green leaf: Khat and potentiality of dependence
Khat leaves originate Yemen and East Africa and are chewed socially for their psychoactive properties. The main constituents of khat, cathinone and cathine, are illegal substances in USA and most ofExpand
Khat chewing: a smokeless gun?
TLDR
Whether khat chewing is dangerous and addictive or rather a way of life that lacks serious long-term health effects for the user remains controversial. Expand
Chemical and microbiological hazards of Khat (Catha edulis) from field to chewing in Ethiopia
TLDR
The observation showed that the processes from farming, Transporting, collection, distribution, and consumption indicate a potential risk for Khat leaf to become contaminated with Chemicals/ microorganisms. Expand
Khat: A widely used drug of abuse in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula: Review of literature
TLDR
A short review of this plant as an example of a drug of abuse that is particularly common and is relatively over-used in the Middle East and North Africa mainly Somalia, Djibouti, and Kenya. Expand
Khat and synthetic cathinones: a review
TLDR
The present work provides a review on khat and synthetic cathinones, concerning their historical background, prevalence, patterns of use, legal status, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and their physiological and toxicological effects on animals and humans. Expand
Isolation and in vitro permeation of phenylpropylamino alkaloids from Khat (Catha edulis) across oral and intestinal mucosal tissues.
TLDR
Evidence is provided that chewing of Khat contributes to the buccal and sublingual absorption of the psychoactive alkaloids in the bloodstream directly across the oral mucosal membranes, and confirms that these metabolites will be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Expand
Review on Toxicological effect of cathaedulis ( khat ) on the Histology and Function of liver
Khat (Catha edulis, family: celastraceae) is a plant grown in the east-Africa and the south west of the Arabian Peninsula. The habit of khat chewing has prevailed for centuries in this part of theExpand
Kaurene as the major constituent of the essential oils of the narcotic plant, Khat (Catha edulis Forsk)
TLDR
Analysis of the essential oil composition showed that Khat has useful volatile chemicals in addition to its alkaloids, including diterpene kaurene, which is known as a potent biological agent for the treatment of cancer patients. Expand
[Khat (Catha edulis): is it "coffee" or "cocaine"?].
TLDR
On the basis of studies performed by the authors, it seems that khat (cathinone) has no gastric or duodenal ulcerogenic effect, however, it does cause a significant enlargement of the hepatic mitochondria. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 112 REFERENCES
The chewing of khat in Somalia.
  • A. S. Elmi
  • Medicine
  • Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • 1983
TLDR
An epidemiological research to compare Northern and Southern regions of Somalia and to obtain a rough estimate of prevalence, definition of social characteristics of the groups of consumers, specification of the motivations, patterns of use and effects during and after consumption has been conducted. Expand
Khat (Catha edulis)—an updated review
TLDR
An extensive literature on khat providing information about its history, botany, production, geographical distribution, chemistry and pharmacology, and exploring the social, economic, medical, psychological and oral aspects related to its use is provided. Expand
Cathinone, a natural amphetamine.
  • P. Kalix
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Pharmacology & toxicology
  • 1992
TLDR
Much experimental evidence indicates that cathinone is the main psychoactive constituent of the khat leaf and that, in fact, this alkaloid is a natural amphetamine. Expand
Adverse effects of khat: a review
TLDR
Chewing khat has a number of important psychological and physical sequelae and ‘Khat-related’ psychosis is very similar to that seen following use of amphetamines. Expand
Medical aspects of the chewing of khat leaves.
  • H. Halbach
  • Medicine
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1972
TLDR
Intoxication with khat is self-limiting but chronic consumption can cause certain disturbances to the health of the user and may also lead to social and economic damage to the individual and the community. Expand
Developmental patterns of phenylpropylamino alkaloids accumulation in khat (Catha edulis, Forsk.).
TLDR
It is proposed that (-)-cathinone is a biosynthetic precursor of (+-cathine and (-)-norephedrine in khat leaves. Expand
Khat chewing and acute myocardial infarction
TLDR
This prospective study was undertaken to examine whether khat chewing has a role in precipitating acute myocardial infarction. Expand
Khat: a plant with amphetamine effects.
  • P. Kalix
  • Medicine
  • Journal of substance abuse treatment
  • 1988
The chewing of leaves of the khat shrub is common in certain countries of East Africa and the Arabian peninsula, and some khat users are subject to psychic dependence on this stimulant. Recently,Expand
The chemistry of khat.
  • K. Szendrei
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Bulletin on narcotics
  • 1980
TLDR
Cathinone is the main phenylalkylamine component of fresh khat, and pharmacological studies indicate that it may be the compound responsible for the characteristic stimulant activity and abuse potential of the plant. Expand
Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen
TLDR
The history, cultivation and constituents of k hat, and the social aspects of khat chewing in Yemen, are described and the pharmacology of (−)‐S‐cathinone in the central nervous system and the peripheral effects are described. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...