Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen

  title={Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen},
  author={Ahmed Al‐Motarreb and Kathryn Baker and Kenneth J. Broadley},
  journal={Phytotherapy Research},
Fresh leaves of the khat tree (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed for their euphoric properties in East Africa and parts of the Middle East, such as The Yemen. This review describes the history, cultivation and constituents of khat, and the social aspects of khat chewing in Yemen. The major pharmacologically active constituent of the fresh leaves is (−)‐S‐cathinone. The pharmacology of (−)‐S‐cathinone in the central nervous system and the peripheral effects are described. (−)‐S‐Cathinone is… 

Khat, a Cultural Chewing Drug: A Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic Summary

Current knowledge on the khat plant with toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic perspectives are reviewed, which addresses in vitro, in vivo, and human studies.

The Chemistry of Khat and Adverse Effect of Khat Chewing

The leaves of khat shrub have a stimulating effect, and the chewing of this material has been practiced for many centuries in certain areas of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. Khat is widely


  • H. Ageely
  • Psychology
    Journal of family & community medicine
  • 2008
The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public.

The potential adverse effects of habitual use of Catha edulis (khat)

Administration of Catha edulis extracts showed a deranged systemic capacity to handle oxidative radicals and induces cytotoxic effects in cells of liver and kidney, as well as induction of cell death in various human leukaemia cell lines and in peripheral human blood leukocytes.

Herbal ecstasy: cardiovascular complications of khat chewing in pregnancy.

The first reported case of a pregnant patient who developed chest pain, tachycardia, and hypertension following khat-chewing session is presented, which is likely to be similar to those of amphetamine.

eview hat chewing , cardiovascular diseases and other internal medical problems : he current situation and directions for future research

There is growing concern about the health hazards of chronic khat chewing and this review concentrates on the adverse effects on health in the peripheral systems of the body, including the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract.

Adverse Health Effects of Khat: A Review

The potential adverse health effects of khat, an evergreen shrub or tree found growing wild or cultivated in the east of a region extending from Southern Africa to the Arabian Peninsula, are summarized.

Potential health effects of daily khat leaves chewing: Study on the biochemical blood constituents changes among adults in Sana’a city, Yemen

The present study investigated the biochemical changes associated with chewing Khat to investigate the effectiveness and specificity for these substances on kidney and liver function test in animals than humans.

A review of the neuropharmacological properties of khat

  • A. FeyissaJ. Kelly
  • Medicine
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 2008



Khat: a plant with amphetamine effects.

  • P. Kalix
  • Medicine
    Journal of substance abuse treatment
  • 1988

The Effect of Qat Chewing on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Healthy Volunteers

During a 3-h period of chewing fresh Qat leaves there was a significant and progressive rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, and levels had not returned to baseline 1h after chewing had ceased, suggesting possible cardiovascular morbidity associated with regular Qat chewing.

Amphetamine-like effects in humans of the khat alkaloid cathinone.

The physical and mental changes that the subjects reported during the experiment indicated that cathinone has in humans euphorigenic and psychostimulant effects, and this alkaloid has also in humans amphetamine-like effects.

Cathinone, a natural amphetamine.

  • P. Kalix
  • Biology
    Pharmacology & toxicology
  • 1992
Much experimental evidence indicates that cathinone is the main psychoactive constituent of the khat leaf and that, in fact, this alkaloid is a natural amphetamine.

Cathinone, an alkaloid from khat leaves with an amphetamine-like releasing effect

It was found that low concentrations of (-)cathinone enhance the release of radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner, and that (-)dopamine was capable of sustaining the enhanced release induced by (+)amphetamine.

Khat induced hemorrhoidal disease in Yemen.

The study demonstrated a significant association between the habit of khat chewing and the development of hemorrhoidal disease.

Neurochemical similarities between d,l-cathinone and d-amphetamine.

Khat chewing is a risk factor of duodenal ulcer.

Khat chewing is significantly associated with duodenal ulcer, and this effect can be due to stress that follows khat chewing, which is induced by the effect of amphetamine like action of cathine present in khat.