Key Female Characters in Film Have More to Talk About Besides Men: Automating the Bechdel Test

  title={Key Female Characters in Film Have More to Talk About Besides Men: Automating the Bechdel Test},
  author={Apoorv Agarwal and Jiehan Zheng and Shruti V. Kamath and Sriramkumar Balasubramanian and Shirin Ann Dey},
The Bechdel test is a sequence of three questions designed to assess the presence of women in movies. [] Key Result Our experiments confirm that in movies that fail the test, women are in fact portrayed as less-central and less-important characters.

Figures and Tables from this paper

Trends in Gender Portrayal in the Marvel Cinematic Universe Avengers Series: A Conventional Content Analysis
The Bechdel test, used to examine the frequency and portrayal of women in film, consists of three criteria – (1) a movie must represent two or more women, (2) who have names and speak to each other,
Using data science to understand the film industry’s gender gap
This study fused data from the online movie database IMDb with a dataset of movie dialogue subtitles to create the largest available corpus of movie social networks, and investigated gender bias in on-screen female characters over the past century.
Gender Disparity and Stereotypes in Popular Children’s Animated Films
This content analysis examines the parity and stereotyping of male and female characters from the 150 topgrossing (North American) children’s animated films from 1980 to 2018. Results showed that the
Quantification of Gender Representation Bias in Commercial Films based on Image Analysis
This study proposes a more comprehensive analysis system that quantifies the degree of bias in the visual representations of female and male characters in commercial films and demonstrates that there exists a statistically significant difference in the Visual Representation of Female andmale characters.
Automatic Identification of Character Types from Film Dialogs
An integrative approach that complements linguistic analysis with interactive and communication characteristics, and shows that it can improve the identification performance of fictional character types from fictional dialog texts such as screenplays is developed.
RtGender: A Corpus for Studying Differential Responses to Gender
A multi-genre corpus of more than 25M comments from five socially and topically diverse sources tagged for the gender of the addressee enables studying socially important questions like gender bias, and has potential uses for downstream applications such as dialogue systems, gender detection or obfuscation, and debiasing language generation.
Impromptu Crowd Science and the Mystery of the Bechdel-Wallace Test Movement
It is argued that the practice of using this test to evaluate movies generates a form of digitally distributed knowledge that reveals a challenging conceptual impasse and is extended as an invitation for HCI researchers.
Telling Stories with Soundtracks: An Empirical Analysis of Music in Film
Soundtracks play an important role in carrying the story of a film. In this work, we collect a corpus of movies and television shows matched with subtitles and soundtracks and analyze the
Connotation Frames of Power and Agency in Modern Films
This work uses connotation frames of power and agency frames to measure the subtle, but prevalent, gender bias in the portrayal of modern film characters and provide insights that deviate from the well-known Bechdel test.
Corpora and Complex Networks as Cultural Critique: Investigating Race and Gender Bias in Graphic Narratives
Attempts to integrate cultural critique into a DH project that analyzes a corpus of book-length comics, or graphic narratives, and applies the popular Bechdel Test to highlight the male bias of graphic narratives are reported on.


Gender Asymmetries in Reality and Fiction: The Bechdel Test of Social Media
It is found that movies and Twitter conversations have a consistent male bias, which does not appear when analyzing MySpace and Twitter, and gender independence measurements are defined to analyze the gender biases of a society, as manifested through digital traces of online behavior.
Sex-Role Socialization in Picture Books for Preschool Children
An examination of prize-winning picture books reveals that women are greatly underrepresented in the titles, central roles, and illustrations. Where women do appear their characterization reinforces
Using Historical Films to Promote Gender Equity in the History Curriculum
Teaching with film is viewed as a pedagogical best practice, especially when teaching historical or social studies content. Many of the most popular films used to teach history topics leave women's
Gender Representation in Notable Children's Picture Books: 1995–1999
Although females comprise 51% of the population, they are represented in less than that amount in children's literature. Psychologists and leaders of liberation groups affirm that gender stereotyping
Gender in Twentieth-Century Children’s Books
Gender representations reproduce and legitimate gender systems. To examine this aspect of the gendered social order, we analyze the representation of males and females in the titles and central
Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: The Presence of Female Characters and Gender Stereotyping in Award-Winning Picture Books Between the 1930s and the 1960s
Since the late 1960s, there has been steady, progressive change in the depiction of gender in award-winning picture books for children (e.g., Clark, Almeida, Gurka, & Middleton, 2003). Female
Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach
This represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age.
Chameleons in Imagined Conversations: A New Approach to Understanding Coordination of Linguistic Style in Dialogs
It is argued that fictional dialogs offer a way to study how authors create the conversations but don't receive the social benefits (rather, the imagined characters do), and significant coordination across many families of function words in the large movie-script corpus is found.
Gender and Power: How Gender and Gender Environment Affect Manifestations of Power
A freely available extension to the Enron corpus is presented, with the gender of senders of 87% messages reliably identified, and the utility of gender information is shown in the problem of automatically predicting the direction of power between pairs of participants in email interactions.
It's a Man's Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an Online Encyclopedia
This paper presents and applies a computational method for assessing gender bias on Wikipedia along multiple dimensions and finds that while women on Wikipedia are covered and featured well in many Wikipedia language editions, the way women are portrayed starkly differs from the way men are portrayed.