Ketorolac tromethamine formulations: an overview

@article{Sinha2009KetorolacTF,
  title={Ketorolac tromethamine formulations: an overview},
  author={Vivek Ranjan Sinha and R. V. Kumar and G Singh},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery},
  year={2009},
  volume={6},
  pages={961 - 975}
}
Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that belongs to the class of heteroaryl acetic acid derivatives. It is a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, being marketed in the racemate form. Most of its analgesic and COX inhibitory activity is retained in the S-isomer. Ketorolac is administered as its tromethamine salt orally, intramuscularly, intravenously and as a topical ophthalmic solution. The frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal disturbances including… 
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE (KT) OROBUCCAL FILMS
Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) is a potent non steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic drug is characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. KT orobuccal films (OBFs) were developed to either chew
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE (KT) OROBUCCAL FILMS
Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) is a potent non steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic drug is characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. KT orobuccal films (OBFs) were developed to either chew
Ketorolac Tromethamine – Routes and Clinical Implications
TLDR
This review evaluates both the potential benefits and potential drawbacks of ketorolac generally, and specifically discusses routes of administration, including their advantages and disadvantages when compared to several traditional analgesics in both inpatient and outpatient settings.
Iontophoretic transport kinetics of ketorolac in vitro and in vivo: demonstrating local enhanced topical drug delivery to muscle.
Pharmacokinetics and perioperative efficacy of intravenous ketorolac in dogs.
TLDR
The results indicate that ketorolac possess good post-operative analgesic effects until about 6 h after administration in dogs undergoing moderately painful surgery.
Statistical design and optimization of ketorolac tromethamine gastroretentive multiparticulate delivery system
TLDR
The sustained release gastroretentive loating pellets of Ketorolac tromethamine were obtained and could be effectively used in the delivery of drug with less irritant effect on the gastric mucosa.
Enhancement of ketorolac tromethamine permeability through rat skin using penetration enhancers: An ex-vivo study
TLDR
The results revealed that the permeation of KT through the skin can maximally be enhanced using oleic acid-an unsaturated fatty acid.
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ENTERIC COATED FORMULATIONS FOR AN ANTI- INFLAMMATORY DRUG BASED ON MODIFIED RELEASE POLYMERS
TLDR
A new approach based on microencapsulation technique for obtaining modified release drug delivery system for ketorolac microcapsules as one of the multi-particulate formulations to decrease ulcerogenicity, improve bioavailability or stability and target a drug at specific sites.
Ocular penetration and anti-inflammatory activity of ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.
  • L. Waterbury, D. Galindo, D. Hollander
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • 2011
PURPOSE Anti-inflammatory activity of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is mediated by suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. This study compared ocular penetration and
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 120 REFERENCES
Ketorolac. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential.
TLDR
Ketorolac offers promise as an alternative to opioid and to other nonsteroidal analgesics in ameliorating moderate to severe postsurgical pain, and with wider clinical experience may find a place in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal and other pain states, and ocular inflammatory conditions.
Ketorolac, an injectable nonnarcotic analgesic.
TLDR
Ketorolac tromethamine appears to be as effective as morphine or meperidine for short-term management of moderate to severe postoperative pain and lacks the respiratory depressant effects of opiate analgesics but shares the toxic potentials of other NSAIAs.
Development and Evaluate the Formulation of Ketorolac Tromethamine Tablets and a Comparative Study with Marketed Product
Ketorolac tromethamine is a member of the pyrrolopyrrole group of non-steroidal abtiinflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. It inhibits the
Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac and p-Hydroxyketorolac Following Oral and Intramuscular Administration of Ketorolac Tromethamine
TLDR
The mean plasma half-life of K was remarkably consistent between po and im administration and was independent of dose, ranging from 5.21 to 5.56 hr.
Development and evaluation of nasal formulations of ketorolac.
TLDR
Interestingly, the absolute bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine from a powder formulation is only 38%, indicating that the drug may not be totally released from the polymer matrix before it is removed from nasal epithelium by mucociliary clearance.
Ketorolac tromethamine: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic used as an adjunct for general anesthesia.
TLDR
Ketorolac tromethamine may offer certain advantages over traditional agents used to provide analgesia, including the absence of respiratory depression, addictive potential, euphoria, a decrease in gastric motility, and cardiovascular effects, which may help in the management of certain types of patients who are at risk for respiratory depression or in those who have a contraindication to narcotics.
Chiral Kinetics and Dynamics of Ketorolac
TLDR
The data demonstrate that the kinetics and interconversion of the enantiomers of ketorolac is different in animals and humans as well as from most other NSAIDs.
Formulation and Optimization of a Sustained-Release Tablet of Ketorolac Tromethamine
TLDR
The friability of the tablets was significantly affected by all three factors: amount of drug, HPMC/NaCMC ratio, and amount of ethylcellulose, and the formulation giving the best release characteristics was identified.
Effects of ketorolac tromethamine on hemostasis in volunteers
Ketorolac tromethamine, an analgesic agent with prostaglandin synthetase–inhibiting activity, is more active than aspirin in vitro in inhibiting collagen– or arachidonic acid–induced platelet
Ketorolac tromethamine absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics in animals and humans.
  • E. Mroszczak, F. Lee, D. Cho
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
  • 1987
TLDR
The metabolism and excretion of K was similar following iv, po, and im doses within each species studied, and the most comparable species with respect to humans metabolically was the mouse.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...