Ketorolac 0.45% Ophthalmic Solution

@article{McCormack2011Ketorolac0O,
  title={Ketorolac 0.45\% Ophthalmic Solution},
  author={Paul L. McCormack},
  journal={Drugs \& Aging},
  year={2011},
  volume={28},
  pages={583-589}
}
Ketorolac 0.45% ophthalmic solution is a topical NSAID indicated in the US for the treatment of ocular pain and inflammation following cataract surgery.In animal studies, the ocular relative bioavailability of single-dose topical ketorolac 0.45% ophthalmic solution was 2- to 3-fold higher than that of ketorolac 0.4% ophthalmic solution.In two identically designed, randomized, double-masked, multicentre trials in adult patients undergoing cataract extraction, the proportions of patients with a… 
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References

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An update on the use of ophthalmic ketorolac tromethamine 0.4%
TLDR
Ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% ophthalmic solution is indicated for the reduction of ocular pain and burning/stinging following cataract and refractive surgery and effectively treats cystoids macular oedema, inhibits miosis and may prevent cystoid macular Oedema when used both pre- and postoperatively.
A review of the use of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% in the treatment of post-surgical inflammation following cataract and refractive surgery
TLDR
The purpose of this paper is to review the use of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% in the treatment of post-surgical inflammation following cataract and refractive surgery.
Ex vivo corneal epithelial wound healing following exposure to ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
TLDR
Corneas treated with ketorolac 0.45% healed as rapidly as those treated with MEM, likely secondary to addition of CMC and removal of BAK.
Ocular pharmacokinetics of 0.45% ketorolac tromethamine
TLDR
The CMC-containing formulation of 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8, increased ket orolac bioavailability by 2-fold in aqueous humor and by 3- fold in iris-ciliary body in comparison to the prior formulation, 0.4%, allowing a reduced dosing schedule from 4 times daily to twice daily.
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