Ketogenic diets in medical oncology: a systematic review with focus on clinical outcomes

@article{Klement2020KetogenicDI,
  title={Ketogenic diets in medical oncology: a systematic review with focus on clinical outcomes},
  author={R. Klement and Nanina Brehm and R. Sweeney},
  journal={Medical Oncology},
  year={2020},
  volume={37},
  pages={1-12}
}
Preclinical data provide evidence for synergism between ketogenic diets (KDs) and other oncological therapies. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize data from clinical studies that have tested KDs along with other treatments used within medical oncology. The PubMed database was searched using the key words "ketogenic" AND ("cancer" OR "glioblastoma"). A secondary search was conducted by screening the reference lists of relevant articles on this topic. Relevant studies for this… Expand
The use of ketogenic diets in cancer patients: a systematic review
TLDR
Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of ketogenic diets in cancer patients is still lacking and most studies had a low quality, high risk of bias and were highly heterogeneous. Expand
Ketogenic diet treatment as adjuvant to standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: a feasibility and safety study
TLDR
KD was feasible and safe as an adjuvant to standard chemoradiation treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a supportive partner and intensive counseling were essential for coping. Expand
Addressing the controversial role of ketogenic diets in cancer treatment
  • R. Klement
  • Medicine
  • Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • 2020
TLDR
Skepticism about using KDs during cancer treatment is discussed and further steps needed to gain better evidence about the KD’s antitumor effect hypothesis are identified. Expand
Ketogenic diets consumed during radio-chemotherapy have beneficial effects on quality of life and metabolic health in patients with rectal cancer
TLDR
Despite being perceived as difficult to implement by 50% of patients, KDs are feasible as complementary therapies alongside radio-chemotherapy and associated with subjective well-being and the hypothesis that they exert beneficial effects on quality of life and metabolic health in rectal cancer patients is supported. Expand
Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diets on the Survival of Adult Oncological Patients.
TLDR
There is no solid evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in tumor progression or in overall survival of cancer patients, since most of the studies are observational, uncontrolled, and of short duration. Expand
A Phase I clinical trial of dose-escalated metabolic therapy combined with concomitant radiation therapy in high-grade glioma
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the metabolic stress induced by a KD combined with metformin would enhance radiation’s efficacy, and the tolerability and feasibility of this approach was evaluated. Expand
Scientific evidence underlying contraindications to the ketogenic diet: An update
TLDR
A critical revision of the literature behind each safety alert is provided, in order to guide through the treatment options in the case of subjects with an indication to the KD and a borderline safe situation. Expand
The ketogenic diet all grown up—Ketogenic diet therapies for adults
TLDR
The responder rate in regard to the epilepsy syndrome (focal vs generalized) will be analyzed to identify adults who are optimal to consider for KDT and the emerging use of the KDT in the critical care setting in adults with refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus as well as other neurologic disorders. Expand
Could ketogenic diet "starve" cancer? Emerging evidence.
TLDR
KD is a dietary pattern characterized by high fat intake, moderate-to-low protein consumption, and very-low-carbohydrate intake, which in cancer setting may target CCs metabolism, potentially influencing both tumor treatment and prognosis. Expand
The effect of a ketogenic diet and synergy with rapamycin in a mouse model of breast cancer
TLDR
The study provides proof of principle that a ketogenic diet a) results in serum insulin reduction and ketosis in a spontaneous breast cancer mouse model; b) can serve as a therapeutic anti-cancer agent; and c) can enhance the effects of rapamycin, an anti- cancer drug, permitting dose reduction for comparable effect. Expand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 87 REFERENCES
ERGO: A pilot study of ketogenic diet in recurrent glioblastoma
TLDR
A ketogenic diet is feasible and safe but probably has no significant clinical activity when used as single agent in recurrent glioblastoma, according to the results of the ERGO trial. Expand
Systematic review: isocaloric ketogenic dietary regimes for cancer patients
TLDR
More robust and consistent clinical evidence is necessary before the KD can be recommended for any single cancer diagnosis or as an adjunct therapy, and an array of potential side effects should be carefully considered before applying KD to cancer patients. Expand
The Modified Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Glioblastoma: An Evaluation of Feasibility and Deliverability within the National Health Service
TLDR
KD was well tolerated, with few side effects and is deliverable within a financially viable, NHS service, along with willingness of patients to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Expand
Ketogenic diet treatment as adjuvant to standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: a feasibility and safety study
TLDR
KD was feasible and safe as an adjuvant to standard chemoradiation treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a supportive partner and intensive counseling were essential for coping. Expand
Targeting metabolism with a ketogenic diet during the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme
TLDR
A KD appears safe and well tolerated during the standard treatment of GBM, and dietary restriction of carbohydrates through a KD reduces serum glucose levels significantly, even in conjunction with high dose steroids, which may affect the response to standard treatment and prognosis. Expand
Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: I. Initial clinical experience with six prospectively studied patients
TLDR
The data lend support to the hypothesis that KDs administered as supportive measures during standard therapy are safe and might be helpful in preservation of muscle mass and weight loss occurred in all patients, although this was only significant in two patients. Expand
Feasibility, Safety, and Beneficial Effects of MCT-Based Ketogenic Diet for Breast Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study
TLDR
It is suggested that chemotherapy combined with KDs can improve the biochemical parameters, body composition, and overall survival with no substantial side effects in patients with breast cancer. Expand
Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports.
TLDR
While this ketogenic diet does not replace conventional antineoplastic treatments, these preliminary results suggest a potential for clinical application which merits further research. Expand
Ketogenic diets: new advances for metabolism-based therapies.
TLDR
Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Expand
Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis
TLDR
There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice and future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...