Ketamine-derived designer drug methoxetamine: metabolism including isoenzyme kinetics and toxicological detectability using GC-MS and LC-(HR-)MSn

  title={Ketamine-derived designer drug methoxetamine: metabolism including isoenzyme kinetics and toxicological detectability using GC-MS and LC-(HR-)MSn},
  author={Markus R. Meyer and Michelle Bach and J{\'e}ssica Welter and Michael Bovens and Alain Turcant and Hans H. Maurer},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
Methoxetamine (MXE; 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(N-ethylamino)-cyclohexanone), a ketamine analog, is a new designer drug and synthesized for its longer lasting and favorable pharmacological effects over ketamine. The aims of the presented study were to identify the phases I and II metabolites of MXE in rat and human urine by GC-MS and LC-high-resolution (HR)-MSn and to evaluate their detectability by GC-MS and LC-MSn using authors’ standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs). Furthermore, human… 

A study of in vitro metabolism and cytotoxicity of mephedrone and methoxetamine in human and pig liver models using GC/MS and LC/MS analyses

The analysis showed two molecules from a successful in vitro metabolism, namely, hydroxytoly-mephedrone and nor-dihydro mephedrone, and it is suggested that GC-MS even with derivatization may not be suitable.

GC-MS and LC-(high-resolution)-MSn studies on the metabolic fate and detectability of camfetamine in rat urine

The metabolic fate and the detectability of CFA in urine was studied and to elucidate which cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes are involved in the main metabolic steps, with the hydroxy-aryl CFA and the corresponding glucuronide being the most abundant.

Synthesis and identification of deschloroketamine metabolites in rats' urine and a quantification method for deschloroketamine and metabolites in rats' serum and brain tissue using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

A metabolomics study for deschloroketamine via non-targeted screening of urine samples employing liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry and developed and validated a multiple reaction monitoring method using a triple quadrupole instrument to track metabolites of deschlorketamine.

Studies on the metabolism and the detectability of 4-methyl-amphetamine and its isomers 2-methyl-amphetamine and 3-methyl-amphetamine in rat urine using GC-MS and LC-(high-resolution)-MSn

The aims of the presented work were to study the metabolism and detectability of each isomer in urine samples of 4-MA and its isomers and to confirm the intake of a commonly used dose of the MAs with an additional workup in rat urine.

oxicokinetics of novel psychoactive substances : Characterization of-acetyltransferase ( NAT ) isoenzymes involved in the phase II etabolism of 2 C designer drugs

The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the recombinant human N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoforms 1 and 2 in the phase II metabolism of 2Cs and show NAT2 could be shown to be the only isoform catalyzing the reaction in vitro.

What is the contribution of human FMO3 in the N-oxygenation of selected therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse?

Fatal Intoxication with Methoxetamine

The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

A Fatal Case Involving N-Ethyldeschloroketamine (2-Oxo-PCE) and Venlafaxine.

The fatal case of a 52-year-old man, who was found dead in the bedroom by his fiancé, who had abused N-ethyldeschloroketamine and venlafaxine prior to his death is presented and the concentrations presented-in particular for femoral blood-are a good starting point for evaluating N-ethylenechlorokETamine intoxications in the future.



2-Methiopropamine, a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and detectability in the rat and human using GC-MS and LC-(HR)-MS techniques

Following the administration of a typical user’s dose, 2-MPA and its metabolites were identified in rat urine using the authors’ GC-MS and the LC-MSn screening approaches and the following major metabolic pathways were proposed: N-demethylation, hydroxylation at the side chain and at the thiophene ring, and combination of these transformations followed by glucuronidation and/or sulfation.

New cathinone-derived designer drugs 3-bromomethcathinone and 3-fluoromethcathinone: studies on their metabolism in rat urine and human liver microsomes using GC-MS and LC-high-resolution MS and their detectability in urine.

For both compounds, detection in rat urine was possible within the authors' systematic toxicological analysis using both GC-MS and LC-MS(n) after a suspected recreational users dose.

Metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis procedure using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of an intake of a dose of DOC in rat urine that corresponds to a common drug user’s dose.

Development of the first metabolite-based LC-MSn urine drug screening procedure-exemplified for antidepressants

The presentedLC-MSn method complements established GC-MS or LC-MS procedures in the authors’ lab and allowed detecting unknown compounds based on known fragment structures and confirms the body passage.

Drugs of abuse screening in urine as part of a metabolite-based LC-MSn screening concept

The presented LC-MSn method complements the well-established gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy procedure in the authors’ laboratory and could be used for drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology and in doping control.

Investigation on the Enantioselectivity of the Sulfation of the Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Metabolites 3,4-Dihydroxymethamphetamine and 4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxymethamphetamine using the Substrate-Depletion Approach

Different pharmacokinetic properties are known for the two enantiomers of the entactogen 3,4-methylendioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), most likely due to enantioselective metabolism. The aim of the

Mass spectral and GC data of drugs, poisons, pesticides, pollutants and their metabolites: Part 3 mass spectra (m/z222 to 777 amu).

Volume 1 (Methods, Tables). Methods. 1 Introduction. 2 Experimental Section. 2.1 Origin and choice of samples. 2.2 Sample preparation. 2.2.1 Standard extraction procedures. Standard

Analysis of anonymous pooled urine from portable urinals in central London confirms the significant use of novel psychoactive substances.

Analysis of pooled urine samples collected anonymously from stand-alone urinals in a large inner city can detect the use of recreational drugs, NPS and anabolic steroids and indicates actual drug use, metabolism and elimination rather than simply discarded drugs in the urinals.

Mass spectral and GC data of drugs, poisons, pesticides, pollutants and their metabolites (Parts 1, 2, 3)

SummaryThese three volumes of gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectral (MS) data are an essential reference work for any professional working in the fields of clinical & forensic toxicology or