Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolite Pharmacology: Insights into Therapeutic Mechanisms.

  title={Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolite Pharmacology: Insights into Therapeutic Mechanisms.},
  author={Panos Zanos and Ruin Moaddel and Patrick J Morris and Lace M Riggs and Jaclyn N Highland and Polymnia Georgiou and E. Rodrigues Pereira and Edson X. Albuquerque and Craig J. Thomas and Carlos A. Zarate and Todd D. Gould},
  journal={Pharmacological reviews},
  volume={70 3},
Ketamine, a racemic mixture consisting of (S)- and (R)-ketamine, has been in clinical use since 1970. Although best characterized for its dissociative anesthetic properties, ketamine also exerts analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant actions. We provide a comprehensive review of these therapeutic uses, emphasizing drug dose, route of administration, and the time course of these effects. Dissociative, psychotomimetic, cognitive, and peripheral side effects associated with short-term or… CONTINUE READING
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