Ketamine: an update on the first twenty-five years of clinical experience

@article{Reich1989KetamineAU,
  title={Ketamine: an update on the first twenty-five years of clinical experience},
  author={David L. Reich and George Silvay},
  journal={Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia},
  year={1989},
  volume={36},
  pages={186-197}
}
RésuméPendant presque 25 ans ďexpérience clinique, les bénéfices et les limitations de ľanesthésie à la kétamine ont été généralement bien définis. Les revues extensives de White et al.2 ainsi que celles de Reeves et al.43 ont énormément aidé à comprendre ľanesthésie dissociative. Néanmoins, des études récentes continuent à nous éclairer sur les différents aspects de la pharmacologie de la kétamine et suggèrent de nouvelles utilisations cliniques de cette drogue. Ľidentification du récepteur du… 
Évaluation de la douleur lors de la pose de cathéters épicutanéocaves chez les nouveau-nés prématurés, proposition d’une nouvelle stratégie médicamenteuse pour l’analgésie en néonatologie : la kétamine per os
TLDR
L’analgesie par G30% et succion non nutritive parait insuffisante pour la pose de KTPC, mais sa pharmacocinetique reste inconnue chez les nouveau-nes prematures.
Estudio de toxicidad aguda S(+)-Ketamina y RS-Ketamina administrada por vía subaracnoidea en conejos. Comparación con lidocaína.
Hay publicados numerosos estudios sobre la ketamina administrada por via subaracnoidea en animales de experimentacion y en humanos, sin embargo los datos sobre la neurotoxicidad que produce son
La ketamina mejora la supervivencia en ratas con quemaduras severas vía la expresión de la proteína de choque térmico 70, ¿cerca o lejos de la perspectiva clínica?
The purpose of this reflection or commentary is not to demerit the efforts of the researchers, but rather to highlight some aspects that should be taken into account in the future for implementing
Anestesia total intravenosa (ATI) para herniorrafias umbilicais em bezerros
TLDR
Se llego a the conclusion of that the tecnica anestesica empleada promovio depresion respiratoria, aumento de glicemia y periodo prolongado ofrecido de recuperacion anesteica en vacunos arena.
Einsatz von Ketamin bei Sepsis und systemischen Entzündungsreaktionen
TLDR
Ketamine appears to represent a beneficial therapeutic option for long-term sedation of patients with arterial hypotension resulting from sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), however, it has to be taken into account that ketamine inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase, thereby potentially aggravating impaired (micro) regional blood flow in sepsi.
The role of ketamine in the current practice of paediatric anaesthesia
TLDR
It is this combination of attributes and faults that defines ketamine’s current role in paediatric anaesthetic practice and its cardiovascular stability and ability to be administered intramuscularly make it a versatile induction agent for patients with congenital heart disease.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 157 REFERENCES
A randomized evaluation of the reversal of ketamine by physostigmine
TLDR
The results demonstrate that physostigmine does not shorten recovery time or reduce the occurrence of ketamine emergence phenomena such as hallucinations, restlessness and dreams, and suggest some synergism between the effects of ketamines and physostigsmine and should discourage the use of physostIGmine as a ketamine antidote.
A comparison of the effects of continuous ketamine infusion and halothane on oxygenation during one-lung anaesthesia in dogs
SummaryIt has been shown that a continuous infusion of ketamine during one-lung anaesthesia combined with a 50 per cent oxygen-curare anaesthetic technique will provide consistently lower shunt
Comparison of midazolam and diazepam to supplement total intravenous anaesthesia with ketamine for endoscopy
  • P. Toft, U. Rømer
  • Medicine
    Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie
  • 1987
TLDR
Patients undergoing endoscopy were anaesthetised in a double-blind prospective trial using total intravenous anaesthesia and the patients who had received midazolam-ketamine had a significantly shorter time to more complete recovery, a significantly lower frequency of emergence reactions and were more satisfied with the anaesthetic.
Kétamine par voie rectale pour l'induction de l'anesthésie pédiatrique
TLDR
Children aged 6 months to 3 years old with congenital heart disease, and mentally retarded 14 to 18 years old affected by pneumopathia received 10 mg kg-1 ketamine by rectal administration and induction was smooth and well tolerated.
Pharmacology of Ketamine Isomers in Surgical Patients
TLDR
Differences in anesthetic potencies, intraoperative effects, analgesia, physical side effects, incidences and types of postanesthetic emergence phenomena, and anesthetic preferences among the optical isomers of ketamine are disclosed.
The dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively reduce excitation of central mammalian neurones by N‐methyl‐aspartate
TLDR
The results suggest that reduction of synaptic excitation mediated via NMA receptors contributes to the anaesthetic/analgesic properties of these two dissociative anaesthetics.
Intrathecal ketamine for war surgery. A preliminary study under field conditions
TLDR
The absence of hypotension or respiratory depression is of obvious benefit in anaesthesia for trauma, but central effects and short duration of surgical analgesia would appear to limit this application of ketamine.
Ketamine kinetics in unmedicated and diazepam‐premedicated subjects
TLDR
Diazepam‐ketamine treatment resulted in higher plasma levels at most time points, but diazepam pretreatment did not alter plasma levels of metabolite KI and pseudometabolite KII nor the 24‐hr urinary excretion of ketamine, KI, and KII.
Comparative Evaluation of Intravenous Agents for Rapid Sequence Induction—Thiopental, Ketamine, and Midazolam
TLDR
Midazolam effectively attenuated both the cardiostimulatory responses and unpleasant emergence reactions associated with ketamine in patients undergoing emergency surgery, which may offer an advantage over thiopental in situations where hemodynamic stability is crucial.
Pharmacologic effects of CI‐581, a new dissociative anesthetic, in man
TLDR
The results indicate that this drug is an effective analgesic and anesthetic agent in doses of 1.0 to 2.0 mg per kilogram, and it is proposed that the words “dissociative anesthetic” be used to describe the mental state produced by this drug.
...
...