Ketamine: an update on the first twenty-five years of clinical experience

@article{Reich1989KetamineAU,
  title={Ketamine: an update on the first twenty-five years of clinical experience},
  author={David L. Reich and George Silvay},
  journal={Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia},
  year={1989},
  volume={36},
  pages={186-197}
}
RésuméPendant presque 25 ans ďexpérience clinique, les bénéfices et les limitations de ľanesthésie à la kétamine ont été généralement bien définis. Les revues extensives de White et al.2 ainsi que celles de Reeves et al.43 ont énormément aidé à comprendre ľanesthésie dissociative. Néanmoins, des études récentes continuent à nous éclairer sur les différents aspects de la pharmacologie de la kétamine et suggèrent de nouvelles utilisations cliniques de cette drogue. Ľidentification du récepteur du… 
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References

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A randomized evaluation of the reversal of ketamine by physostigmine
TLDR
The results demonstrate that physostigmine does not shorten recovery time or reduce the occurrence of ketamine emergence phenomena such as hallucinations, restlessness and dreams, and suggest some synergism between the effects of ketamines and physostigsmine and should discourage the use of physostIGmine as a ketamine antidote.
A comparison of the effects of continuous ketamine infusion and halothane on oxygenation during one-lung anaesthesia in dogs
SummaryIt has been shown that a continuous infusion of ketamine during one-lung anaesthesia combined with a 50 per cent oxygen-curare anaesthetic technique will provide consistently lower shunt
Antagonism of ketamine by 4-aminopyridine and physostigmine.
TLDR
The paper by Agoston and others (1980) demonstrating the ability of 4-aminopyridine to enhance the rate of recovery from ketamine—diazepam anaesthesia in humans is read with interest.
Kétamine par voie rectale pour l'induction de l'anesthésie pédiatrique
TLDR
Children aged 6 months to 3 years old with congenital heart disease, and mentally retarded 14 to 18 years old affected by pneumopathia received 10 mg kg-1 ketamine by rectal administration and induction was smooth and well tolerated.
Pharmacology of Ketamine Isomers in Surgical Patients
TLDR
Differences in anesthetic potencies, intraoperative effects, analgesia, physical side effects, incidences and types of postanesthetic emergence phenomena, and anesthetic preferences among the optical isomers of ketamine are disclosed.
The dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively reduce excitation of central mammalian neurones by N‐methyl‐aspartate
TLDR
The results suggest that reduction of synaptic excitation mediated via NMA receptors contributes to the anaesthetic/analgesic properties of these two dissociative anaesthetics.
Ketamine kinetics in unmedicated and diazepam‐premedicated subjects
TLDR
Diazepam‐ketamine treatment resulted in higher plasma levels at most time points, but diazepam pretreatment did not alter plasma levels of metabolite KI and pseudometabolite KII nor the 24‐hr urinary excretion of ketamine, KI, and KII.
Comparative Evaluation of Intravenous Agents for Rapid Sequence Induction—Thiopental, Ketamine, and Midazolam
TLDR
Midazolam effectively attenuated both the cardiostimulatory responses and unpleasant emergence reactions associated with ketamine in patients undergoing emergency surgery, which may offer an advantage over thiopental in situations where hemodynamic stability is crucial.
Comparison of Ketamine and Thiopental in Healthy Volunteers: Effects on Mental Status, Mood, and Personality
TLDR
There was a significantly greater incidence of abnormalities of mental status in subjects given ketamine than in those who had received thiopental after anesthesia, and no significant differences were found with regard to long-term changes in personality.
Glycopyrrolate during ketamine/diazepam anaesthesia A double‐blind comparison with atropine
TLDR
There were no statistically significant differences with respect to salivation, blood pressure, heart rate, nausea and/or vomiting, unpleasant dreams and arousal time during induction of anaesthesia with ketamine and diazepam for alloplastic hip or knee surgery.
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