Kepler-9: A System of Multiple Planets Transiting a Sun-Like Star, Confirmed by Timing Variations

@article{Holman2010Kepler9AS,
  title={Kepler-9: A System of Multiple Planets Transiting a Sun-Like Star, Confirmed by Timing Variations},
  author={Matthew J. Holman and Daniel C. Fabrycky and Darin Ragozzine and Eric B. Ford and Jason H. Steffen and William F. Welsh and Jack J. Lissauer and David W. Latham and Geoffrey W. Marcy and Lucianne M. Walkowicz and Natalie M. Batalha and Jon M. Jenkins and Jason F. Rowe and William D. Cochran and François Fressin and Guillermo Torres and Lars A. Buchhave and Dimitar D. Sasselov and William J. Borucki and David G. Koch and Gibor Basri and Timothy M. Brown and Douglas A. Caldwell and David Charbonneau and Edward Wood Dunham and Thomas Gautier and John Charles Geary and Ronald L. Gilliland and Michael R. Haas and Steve B. Howell and David R. Ciardi and Michael Endl and Debra A. Fischer and G{\'a}bor F{\"u}r{\'e}sz and Joel D. Hartman and Howard T. Isaacson and John Asher Johnson and Phillip J. MacQueen and Althea V. Moorhead and Robert C. Morehead and Jerome A. Orosz},
  journal={Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={330},
  pages={51 - 54}
}
Extra Exoplanet? A planet is said to transit its star if it can be seen to pass in front of the star; 19% of the known extrasolar planets are transiting planets. A lone planet will transit in an exactly periodic manner; if other planets are present, however, variations in transit duration are expected because of gravitational interactions. Holman et al. (p. 51, published online 26 August; see the cover; see the Perspective by Laughlin) report timing variations in the transits of two exoplanets… 

A closely packed system of low-mass, low-density planets transiting Kepler-11

Kepler spacecraft observations of a single Sun-like star are reported that reveal six transiting planets, five with orbital periods between 10 and 47 days and a sixth planet with a longer period, among the smallest for which mass and size have both been measured.

The mass of the Mars-sized exoplanet Kepler-138 b from transit timing

The sizes and masses of three planets orbiting Kepler-138, a star much fainter and cooler than the Sun, are reported, determining that the mass of the Mars-sized inner planet, Kepler- 138 b, is Earth masses and its density is grams per cubic centimetre.

The Detection and Characterization of a Nontransiting Planet by Transit Timing Variations

A planetary system with two confirmed planets and one candidate planet discovered with the publicly available data for KOI-872, reminiscent of the orderly arrangement within the solar system, with nearly coplanar and circular orbits.

TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. IV. CONFIRMATION OF FOUR MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS BY SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODELS

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical

Planet Detection: Transit Timing Variation

Planet detection from transit timing variations is a method for determining the existence and properties of a planet from the gravitational perturbations it induces on the orbit of another,

Kepler 9: First Transiting System Confirmed by TTV

The planetary system of the star Kepler 9 is the first system confirmed by the Transit Timing Variation Method (TTV). The central star of this system, a solar-like star, hosts two Saturn-sized

Evidence of Things Not Seen

Transit timing variations (TTVs) in the length of a candidate extrasolar planet's year are used to infer the presence of an unseen planetary companion, but with only weak constraints on the orbital period and companion mass.

A Dance of Extrasolar Planets

The Kepler space telescope has found a system of planets whose orbital timing varies due to gravitational coupling, including a transiting planet whose orbit of 38.9 days varies by up to 1 hour due to the interaction with other planets in the system.

The Transit Time Variations Investigation of Kepler-9

After the launch of the Kepler detector, more than 700 exoplanets, planets outside of our solar system, have been discovered. Most of these planets have been discovered by observing the transit of a

KEPLER-18b, c, AND d: A SYSTEM OF THREE PLANETS CONFIRMED BY TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS, LIGHT CURVE VALIDATION, WARM-SPITZER PHOTOMETRY, AND RADIAL VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS

We report the detection of three transiting planets around a Sun-like star, which we designate Kepler-18. The transit signals were detected in photometric data from the Kepler satellite, and were
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

Orbital Perturbations of Transiting Planets: A Possible Method to Measure Stellar Quadrupoles and to Detect Earth-Mass Planets

The recent discovery of a planetary transit in the star HD 209458, and the subsequent highly precise observation of the transit light curve with Hubble Space Telescope, is encouraging to search for

On detecting terrestrial planets with timing of giant planet transits

The transits of a distant star by a planet on a Keplerian orbit occur at time intervals exactly equal to the orbital period. If a second planet orbits the same star, the orbits are not Keplerian and

A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN THE NASA EPOXI OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM GJ 436

We present time series photometry of the M dwarf transiting exoplanet system GJ 436 obtained with the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) component of the NASA EPOXI mission.

The Use of Transit Timing to Detect Terrestrial-Mass Extrasolar Planets

This work shows that timing measurements between successive transits will allow for the detection of additional planets in the system (not necessarily transiting) by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet.

A Planet at 5 AU around 55 Cancri

We report precise Doppler-shift measurements of 55 Cancri (G8 V) obtained from 1989 to 2002 at Lick Observatory. The velocities reveal evidence for an outer planetary companion to 55 Cancri orbiting

Dynamics of the Giant Planets of the Solar System in the Gaseous Protoplanetary Disk and Their Relationship to the Current Orbital Architecture

We study the orbital evolution of the four giant planets of our solar system in a gas disk. Our investigation extends the previous works by Masset & Snellgrove and Morbidelli & Crida, which focused

The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets - XIX. Characterization and dynamics of the GJ 876 planetary system

Precise radial-velocity measurements for data acquired with the HARPS spectrograph infer that three planets orbit the M4 dwarf star GJ876. In particular, we confirm the existence of planet d, which

Planetary Radii across Five Orders of Magnitude in Mass and Stellar Insolation: Application to Transits

To aid in the physical interpretation of planetary radii constrained through observations of transiting planets, or eventually direct detections, we compute model radii of pure hydrogen-helium,

STABILITY OF THE DIRECTLY IMAGED MULTIPLANET SYSTEM HR 8799: RESONANCE AND MASSES

A new era of directly imaged extrasolar planets has produced a three-planet system, where the masses of the planets have been estimated by untested cooling models. We point out that the nominal

Planet–planet scattering in circumstellar gas disks

Context. Hydrodynamical simulations of two giant planets embedded in a gaseous disk have shown that in case of a smooth convergent migration they end up trapped into a mean motion resonance. These