Kelvin probe microscopy of localized electric potentials induced in insulating materials by electron irradiation.


Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM) is a specialized atomic force microscopy technique in which long-range Coulomb forces between a conductive atomic force probe and a specimen enable the electrical potential at the surface of a specimen to be characterized with high spatial resolution. KPM has been used to characterize nonconductive materials following their… (More)