Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction

@article{Curran2016KeepOT,
  title={Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction},
  author={H. Valerie Curran and Tom P. Freeman and Claire Mokrysz and David A. Lewis and Celia J. A. Morgan and Loren H. Parsons},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2016},
  volume={17},
  pages={293-306}
}
In an increasing number of states and countries, cannabis now stands poised to join alcohol and tobacco as a legal drug. Quantifying the relative adverse and beneficial effects of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids should therefore be prioritized. Whereas newspaper headlines have focused on links between cannabis and psychosis, less attention has been paid to the much more common problem of cannabis addiction. Certain cognitive changes have also been attributed to cannabis use, although… 
Effects of increasing cannabis potency on adolescent health.
TLDR
The influence that changing cannabis products have on adolescent health and the implications they carry for policy and prevention measures as legal cannabis markets continue to emerge worldwide are highlighted.
Can we make cannabis safer?
TLDR
Findings from studies investigating various types of cannabis are reviewed and how future research can help to better understand and reduce the risks of cannabis use are discussed.
Cannabis and mental illness: a review
TLDR
This article provides a reconciliation of the addiction vulnerability and allostatic hypotheses to explain co-morbidity addiction in mentally ill cannabis users, as well as to further aid in developing a rational framework for the assessment and treatment of problematic cannabis use in these patients.
The Psychiatric Consequences of Cannabinoids.
TLDR
The plausibility of a causal relationship between cannabinoid exposure and persistent negative psychiatric outcomes, and the potential for long-term brain changes by regular exposure, especially for adolescents, are sufficient to warrant discussions with clinicians and the public.
Cannabis Addiction and the Brain: a Review
TLDR
Previous research on the acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on the brain and behavior are reviewed, and it is found that the three-stage framework of addiction applies to CUD in a manner similar to other drugs of abuse, albeit with some slight differences.
The why behind the high: determinants of neurocognition during acute cannabis exposure.
TLDR
There is evidence that the neurocognitive response to acute cannabis exposure is driven by changes in the activity of the mesocorticolimbic and salience networks, which varies with product formulations and frequency of use and can differ between recreational and therapeutic use.
Recommendation to reconsider examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior
TLDR
There is an urgent need for future research to disaggregate examination of THC from CBD, along with the importance of measuring cannabis potency to more effectively unravel its influence on cognitive function and other health issues.
Heavy cannabis use, dependence and the brain: a clinical perspective
TLDR
Current evidence of long‐term effects of daily cannabis use and cannabis use disorder on brain‐related outcomes is suggestive rather than conclusive, but use is associated with psychiatric morbidity and with cognitive impairments that recover after a period of abstinence.
Cannabis effects on brain structure, function, and cognition: considerations for medical uses of cannabis and its derivatives
TLDR
A review of relevant findings in order to inform attitudes and public policy regarding the recreational and medical use of cannabis and cannabinoid compounds and to point to considerations for age limits and guidelines for use.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 262 REFERENCES
Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being
TLDR
CBD attenuates the psychotic-like effects of cannabis over time in recreational users, and raises concerns for the harms stemming from use of varieties such as ‘skunk’ (sensimillia), which lack any CBD but currently dominate the supply of cannabis.
Pharmacological treatment of cannabis dependence.
TLDR
Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study and controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications.
Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.
TLDR
Neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain are reviewed to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.
Molecular mechanisms of cannabinoid addiction
TLDR
This work has assisted to an increased effort aimed to individuate the brain circuits underlying cannabis addiction and dependence, including the identification of specific set of transcriptional regulations that develop differently after chronic cannabinoids and in the abstinent brain.
Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis
TLDR
Hair samples were analysed to examine levels of Δ9-THC and CBD in 140 individuals and three clear groups emerged: ’THC only’, ‘THC+CBD’ and those with no cannabinoid in hair, which provides evidence of the divergent properties of cannabinoids.
The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows
TLDR
There is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in Individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence, which has implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions.
Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence
TLDR
High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people, and its profile is strongly defined by negative effects, but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.
AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers
TLDR
These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate theAKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis.
Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study
TLDR
The antagonistic effects of cannabidiol at the CB1 receptor are probably responsible for its profile in smoked cannabis, attenuating the memory-impairing effects of THC.
Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study.
TLDR
Cannabis users titrate their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intake by inhaling lower volumes of smoke when smoking strong joints, but this does not fully compensate for the higher cannabis doses per joint when using strong cannabis.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...