Keck Pencil-Beam Survey for Faint Kuiper Belt Objects

  title={Keck Pencil-Beam Survey for Faint Kuiper Belt Objects},
  author={Eugene Chiang and M. E. Brown},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  pages={1411 - 1422}
We present the results of a pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt using the Keck 10 m telescope. A single 0.01 deg2 field is imaged 29 times for a total integration time of 4.8 hr. Combining exposures in software allows the detection of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) having visual magnitude mV ≲ 27.9. Two new KBOs are discovered. One object having mV = 25.5 lies at a probable heliocentric distance R ≈ 33 AU. The second object at mV = 27.2 is located at R ≈ 44 AU. Both KBOs have diameters of about… 

Large Bodies in the Kuiper Belt

We present a survey for bright Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and Centaurs, conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 0.9 m telescope with the KPNO 8K Mosaic CCD. The survey imaged 164 deg2

The Kuiper Belt luminosity function from mR = 22 to 25

In summer 1999, we performed a survey optimized for the discovery of irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune. We imaged 11.85 deg 2 of sky and discovered 66 new outer Solar system objects (not

A Wide-Field CCD Survey for Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects

A modified Baker-Nunn camera was used to conduct a wide-field survey of 1428 deg2 of sky near the ecliptic in search of bright Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs. This area is an order of magnitude

The Size Distribution of Trans-Neptunian Bodies

We search 0.02 deg2 of the invariable plane for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) 25 AU or more distant using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. With 22 ks per

Discovery of the Bright Trans-Neptunian Object 2000 EB173

We describe the discovery circumstances and photometric properties of 2000 EB173, now one of the brightest trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with opposition magnitude mR = 18.9 and also one of the

The Structure of the Kuiper Belt: Size Distribution and Radial Extent

The size distribution in the Kuiper Belt records physical processes operating during the formation and subsequent evolution of the solar system. This paper reports a study of the apparent magnitude

The Edge of the Solar System

We have surveyed for Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in six fields of the ecliptic (total sky area 1.5 deg2) to limiting magnitudes between R = 24.9 and R = 25.9. This is deep enough to detect KBOs of

Population of the Scattered Kuiper Belt

The discovery of three new scattered Kuiper Belt objects (SKBOs) from a wide-field survey of the ecliptic are presented, demonstrating that the SKBOs are similar in number and mass to the KuiPer Belt inside 50 AU.

A Deep Sky Survey of Edgeworth Kuiper Belt Objects with an Improved Shift-and-Add Method

A survey of the minor bodies in the outer regions of our solar system was carried out using the Suprime-Cam attached to the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea on 2001 February 22 and 25. Seven

Observational Limits on a Distant Cold Kuiper Belt

Almost all the more than 500 known Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been discovered within 50 AU of the Sun. One possible explanation for the observed lack of KBOs beyond 50 AU is that the distant



Pencil-Beam Surveys for Faint Trans-Neptunian Objects

Motivated by a desire to understand the size distribution of objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, an observing program has been conducted at the Palomar 5 m and Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6 m

Large Kuiper Belt Objects: The Mauna Kea 8K CCD Survey

We describe a large-area ecliptic survey designed to assess the sky-plane surface density of bright Kuiper Belt objects. We used an 8192 × 8192 pixel CCD mosaic to image 51.5 deg2 to a 50% detection

Deep Imaging of the Kuiper Belt with the Keck 10 Meter Telescope

We present a new, pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt taken with the Keck 10 m telescope. The cumulative surface density of Kuiper Belt Objects measured to apparent red magnitude mR=26.1 is 31+

The Discovery of Halley-sized Kuiper Belt Objects Using the Hubble Space Telescope

We report the statistical detection (at the >99% confidence level) of a population of 28th magnitude objects exhibiting proper motions of ~1 arcsecond per hour at quadrature in deep HST/WFPC2 images.

The Solar System Beyond Neptune

The aim of this research is to study the objects in the Kuiper Belt, in order to understand the nature of its origin and the evolutionary processes which have affected the Kuiper Belt. Particular

An Analysis of the Statistics of the Hubble Space Telescope Kuiper Belt Object Search

We calculate statistical limits to the detection of Kuiper belt objects in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data of Cochran et al., in which they report the discovery of a population of Halley-sized

From the Kuiper Belt to Jupiter-Family Comets: The Spatial Distribution of Ecliptic Comets☆

Abstract We present numerical orbital integrations of thousands of massless particles as they evolve from Neptune-encountering orbits in the Kuiper belt for up to 1 Gyr or until they either impact a

Two distinct populations of Kuiper-belt objects

The discovery of the first member of the Kuiper belt—a formerly hypothetical ancient reservoir of objects located beyond Neptune's orbit—started a revolution in our understanding of the outer Solar

A new dynamical class of object in the outer Solar System

Some three dozen objects have now been discovered beyond the orbit of Neptune and classified as members of the Kuiper belt—a remnant population of icy planetesimals that failed to be incorporated


The Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) for the Cassegrain focus of the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea is described. It has an imaging mode so it can also be used for taking direct