K–Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra

  title={K–Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra},
  author={Dragoslav Ninkovich and Nicholas J. Shackleton and Abdalla A. Abdel-Monem and John D. Obradovich and Glen Arthur Izett},
The late Pleistocene eruption of Toba is the largest magnitude explosive eruption documented from the Quaternary. K–Ar dating of the uppermost unit of the Toba Tuff gives an age of ∼ 75,000 yr. A chemically and petrographically equivalent ash layer in deep-sea cores helps calibrate the Stage 4–5 boundary of the standard oxygen isotope stratigraphy. A similar ash in Malaya that overlies finds of Tampan Palaeolithic tools indicates that they are older than 75,000 yr. 
The Toba Caldera Complex
Abstract The Toba Caldera in Indonesia is one of the most remarkable volcanic features formed during Quaternary geologic time. Its rich history of research for over a century has yielded importantExpand
No short reversals of Brunhes Age recorded in the Toba Tuffs, north Sumatra, Indonesia
Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar data indicate that two tuffs are present at Siguragura, North Sumatra, Indonesia: a reversely magnetized tuff (the earliest eruptive unit of the Toba caldera) of MatuyamaExpand
Tephra records from abyssal sediments off western Sumatra in recent 135 ka: evidence from Core IR-GC1
Three volcanic ash layers were identified in a deep-sea Core IR-GC1 from the north-eastern Indian Ocean, adjacent to western Indonesian arc. They were dominated by glass shards with minor mineralExpand
The discovery of Santorini Minoan tephra in western Turkey
Dispersal of volcanic ash from the violent Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption of the Santorini volcano in the southern Aegean has been the subject of much research1–6. A sediment core taken from a smallExpand
Did the 73 ka Toba super-eruption have an enduring effect? Insights from genetics, prehistoric archaeology, pollen analysis, stable isotope geochemistry, geomorphology, ice cores, and climate models
Abstract The potential impact of the ∼73 ka Toba super-eruption upon global and regional climate, terrestrial ecosystems and prehistoric human populations remains unclear. Evidence from genetics,Expand
Cryptotephra from the 74 ka BP Toba super-eruption in the Billa Surgam caves, southern India
Abstract The ∼74 ka BP Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT), from the largest known Quaternary volcanic eruption, has been found for the first time as a non-visible ( crypto -) tephra layer within the BillaExpand
First Toba supereruption revival
Little has been known about the earliest Toba eruptive episodes that created the largest-known caldera complex of Quaternary age. Here we report evidence for the eastward dispersal of the oldest TobaExpand
Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower Narmada basin, western India
This communication reports the occurrence of an ash layer intercalated within the late Quaternary alluvial succession of the Madhumati River, a tributary of the lower Narmada River. Petrographic,Expand
Pleistocene Climates on Land
The record of Pleistocene climates on land was pieced together from continuous sedimentary sequences in periglacial areas. It correlates well with the paleoclimatic history reconstructed from theExpand
Youngest Toba Tuff in the Son Valley, India: a weak and discontinuous stratigraphic marker
Abstract Investigation of the climatic and environmental impacts of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT, ∼74 ka BP) eruption of Toba volcano, Sumatra, is crucial for understanding the consequences of theExpand


Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of Equatorial Pacific core V28-238: Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 year and 106 year scale☆
Core Vema 28-238 preserves an excellent oxygen isotope and magnetic stratigraphy and is shown to contain undisturbed sediments deposited continuously through the past 870,000 yr. Detailed correlationExpand
Globally synchronous extinction of the radiolarian Stylatractus universus
Through comparison of the extinction level of Stylatractus universus with the δO 18 record in widespread high- and low-latitude deep-sea cores, we show that this level is globally synchronous. ItExpand
The eruption of vast quantities of acid pumice tuffs stands out as the major event in the initial stages of Quaternary volcanism on Sumatra. By their strict alignment along a trend of longitudinalExpand
North American Glacial History Extended to 75,000 Years Ago
By concentrating carbon-14 through thermal diffusion, it is possible to extend the range of carbon- 14 dating to 75,000 years ago, and a reliable chronology appears possible. Expand
Global synchroneity of late Quaternary coccolith datum levels Validation by oxygen isotopes
The global synchroneity of the Pseudoemiliania lacunosa extinction and the first appearance of Emiliania huxleyi is established by correlation with the oxygen isotope record in seven cores underlyingExpand
Pleistocene Site in the Malay Peninsula
IT was to be regretted that until recently no artefacts of Pleistocene age had been found in the Malay Peninsula, and particularly so because of the relationship of the peninsula to the now sunkenExpand
Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology
On August 24, 1976 the IUGS Subcommission on Geochronology (FOOTNOTE 4) met in Sydney, Australia, during the 25th International Geological Congress. They unanimously agreed to recommend the adoptionExpand