BACKGROUND Juvenile polyposis (JP) is a frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is present in 3-4% of the population < 21 years of age and represents 90% of all polyps in childhood. The most common complaints are hematoquezia, abdominal pain, and polyp prolapse. METHODS A descriptive, observational, transversal study of 225 children with histopatologic diagnosis of JP seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, between January 1985 and December 2000. Variables studied included age of presentation, gender, frequency, clinical manifestations, type, location, and diagnostic and therapeutic methods. RESULTS Frequency was one polyp per 162 patient seen during the same period (0.61%) and age 2 to 8 years (82%), a total of 235 patients, 120 females and 273 total polyps were found rectum the most common site 82% (224 polyps) followed by sigmoid. Mean distance from anal margin was 6.5 cm. Of all polyps, 82.9% were in the first 10 cm of anal margin. Of all patients, 92.3% had a single polyp and 7.7% had multiple polyps. A baritated study was made in 39 patients (16.6%) with diagnostic efficacy of 74%. No additional baritated studies were needed because of high diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of the rectosigmoidoscopy. CONCLUSIONS Rectosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy remain as the diagnosis and therapeutic method in children with JP.