Just Formal Enough? Automated Analysis of EARS Requirements

  title={Just Formal Enough? Automated Analysis of EARS Requirements},
  author={Levi Lucio and Salman Rahman and Chih-Hong Cheng and Alistair Mavin},
EARS is a technique used by Rolls-Royce and many other organizations around the world to capture requirements in natural language in a precise manner. [] Key Method We provide two levels of analysis of requirements written in EARS-CTRL: firstly our editor uses projectional editing as well as typing (based on a glossary of controller terms) to ensure as far as possible well-formedness by construction of the requirements; secondly we have used a controller synthesis tool to check whether a set of EARS-CTRL…
Formalizing EARS – First Impressions
  • L. Lucio, Tahira Iqbal
  • Computer Science
    2018 1st International Workshop on Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS)
  • 2018
This short paper explores how a translation from EARS into Linear Temporal Logic can be implemented in practice.
RCM: Requirement Capturing Model for Automated Requirements Formalisation
This paper introduces the first and key step in this process, a Requirement Capturing Model (RCM) - as a reference model - to model the key elements of a system requirement regardless of their format, or order.
From Natural Language Requirements to Passive Test Cases Using Guarded Assertions
This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As, and presents a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which the process would be used.
Automated Translation of Natural Language Requirements to Runtime Monitors
This report presents an end-to-end framework to capture requirements in structured natural language and generate monitors that capture their semantics faithfully and leverages NASA’s Formal Requirement Elicitation Tool ( FRET), and the RV system C OPILOT.
On systematically building a controlled natural language for functional requirements
Evaluation shows that Rimay is expressive enough to capture, on average, 88% (405 out of 460) of the NL requirements statements in four previously unseen SRSs from the financial domain.
A modular approach to integrate verification tools in model based development
This work sketches a framework formalizing the concepts required to execute these tasks in a modular fashion and implements a solution based on domain specific languages (DSLs) and parameterizable model transformations.
RCM-Extractor: Automated Extraction of a Semi Formal Representation Model from Natural Language Requirements
This paper introduces an automated extraction technique (RCMExtractor) to extract the key constructs of a comprehensive and formalisable semi-formal representation model from textual requirements.
A Methodology for Developing a Verifiable Aircraft Engine Controller from Formal Requirements
This methodology streamlines the process of developing verifiable aircraft engine controllers, by ensuring that the requirements are formalised up-front and useable during development, and supports the traceability of requirements throughout the verification process.


Formal consistency checking over specifications in natural languages
This paper presents a requirement-consistency maintenance framework to produce consistent representations and extends pure syntactic parsing by adding semantic reasoning and the support of partitioning input and output variables.
Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS)
A small set of structural rules was developed to address eight common requirement problems including ambiguity, complexity and vagueness and was applied whilst extracting aero engine control system requirements from an airworthiness regulation document.
Big Ears (The Return of "Easy Approach to Requirements Engineering")
The results strongly support the hypothesis that a small set of simple requirement structures would be an efficient way to enhance the writing of high-level stakeholder requirements.
Listens Learned (8 Lessons Learned Applying EARS)
The main contribution of the paper is the eight key EARS-specific lessons learned during these deployments, which will be beneficial to practitioners who wish to deploy EARS in their own projects.
ARSENAL: Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language
ARSENAL is a framework and methodology for systematically transforming natural language NL requirements into analyzable formal models and logic specifications that can be analyzed automatically for consistency and implementability.
AutoFOCUS 3: Tooling Concepts for Seamless, Model-based Development of Embedded Systems
This paper presents tooling concepts in AUTOFOCUS 3 supporting the development of software-intensive embedded system design using integrated model-based models based on the FOCUS theory.
Anzu: A Tool for Property Synthesis
ANZU takes a formal specification of a design and generates a functionally correct system if one exists and if the specification is realizable ANZU provides the user with a Verilog module that represents a correct finite-state system.
Bounded synthesis
This article introduces the bounded synthesis approach, which makes it possible to traverse this immense search space in a structured manner and demonstrates that bounded synthesis solves many synthesis problems that were previously considered intractable.
Unbeast: Symbolic Bounded Synthesis
We present Unbeast v.0.6, a tool for synthesising finitestate systems from specifications written in linear-time temporal logic (LTL). We combine bounded synthesis, specification splitting and
Structural Synthesis for GXW Specifications
This work develops a novel approach for synthesizing a set of synchronously communicating actor-based controllers and suggests that GXW synthesis scales well to industrial-sized control synthesis problems with 20 input and output ports and beyond.