Joint sets that enhance production from Middle and Upper Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian Basin

@article{Engelder2009JointST,
  title={Joint sets that enhance production from Middle and Upper Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian Basin},
  author={Terry Engelder and Gary George Lash and Redescal Uzc{\'a}tegui},
  journal={AAPG Bulletin},
  year={2009},
  volume={93},
  pages={857-889}
}
The marine Middle and Upper Devonian section of the Appalachian Basin includes several black shale units that carry two regional joint sets (J1 and J2 sets) as observed in outcrop, core, and borehole images. These joints formed close to or at peak burial depth as natural hydraulic fractures induced by abnormal fluid pressures generated during thermal maturation of organic matter. When present together, earlier J1 joints are crosscut by later J2 joints. In outcrops of black shale on the foreland… 

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