Job Changes Following Childbirth

  title={Job Changes Following Childbirth},
  author={Sarah Beth Estes and Jennifer L. Glass},
  journal={Work and Occupations},
  pages={405 - 436}
As women increasingly maintain labor force participation following childbirth, job changing rather than labor force withdrawal is on the rise. This article presents a theoretical perspective that takes into account the increasing financial responsibilities of mothers and modifies human capital propositions concerning job changing. We investigate initial differences between women who change jobs following childbirth and those who stay with their prenatal employer, as well as the differences… 
Parental Leave Statutes and Maternal Return to Work After Childbirth in the United States
This article examines whether the passage of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) altered mothers' postpartum employment continuity, job retention, andwages. Data were drawn from the
Explaining Changes in Mothers' Job Satisfaction Following Childbirth
This study examines the determinants of changes in job satisfaction for childbearing women who return to their jobs following childbirth. By using longitudinal data, this research is able to
The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: Long-Term Effects of Children on Women's Careers.
It is found that motherhood is "costly" to women's careers, but the effects on all 3 labor force outcomes attenuate at older ages, and mothers seem able to regain ground in terms of occupational status.
Young Women's Job Mobility: The Influence of Motherhood Status and Education
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)Women pay a price for bearing and raising children; studies consistently have found that mothers earn lower wages than childless women (Budig & England, 2001;
Blessing or Curse?
Little empirical study has been devoted to the impact of employer-sponsored work-family policies on women’s wages. These policies include flexible scheduling, telecommuting, reduced hours of work,
“Family-Friendly” Jobs and Motherhood Pay Penalties: The Impact of Flexible Work Arrangements Across the Educational Spectrum
This article focuses on how flexible work arrangements affect motherhood wage penalties for differently situated women. While theories of work–life facilitation suggest that flexible work should ease
Women’s Job Quality Across Family Life Stages: An Analysis of Female Employees Across 27 European Countries
There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors.
Women's Employment Patterns during Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis.
Research on women's employment and parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as a birth. This article applies a group-based trajectory
The State, Courts, and Maternity Policies in U.S. Organizations: Specifying Institutional Mechanisms
We analyze the dynamic interaction of state institutions and organizational policies through an analysis of leave benefits in U.S. organizations. Following the Pregnancy Leave Act of 1978 and the
Does moving for family nest-building inhibit mothers' labour force (re-)entry?
BACKGROUND Couples tend to move house around first childbirth and often into suburban or rural neighbourhoods, conforming to the normative belief that children should grow up in a ‘proper family


Changes in the Employment Continuity of Succeeding Cohorts of Young Women
This article examines employment continuity for three succeeding cohorts of women in their 20s who would be typically experiencing early life-cycle transitions to marriage and parenthood. Using the
Gender, Parenthood, and Job-Family Compatibility
This article explores the contention that the concentration of women in certain jobs that accommodate parenting can help explain both occupational gender segregation and the lower wages received by
Causes and Consequences of Women's Employment Discontinuity, 1967-1973
Using a sample of young White women from 1967 to 1973, this research finds support for the hypothesis that a single break in employment has immediate, adverse effects on occupational attainment. Job
This analysis tests the influence of personal, job, and family status characteristics on maternal employment. We use the Merged Child/Mother File from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to
Employer Characteristics and the Provision of Family Responsive Policies
This article reviews what we know about the family benefits and working conditions associated with low levels of job-family stress, and the distribution of such benefits among American employers. We
Women's Employment Patterns and Occupational Achievements.
Abstract This paper suggests that employment patterns and occupational advancement are related: Those less extensively and less continuously employed will have less investment in human capital, fewer
Occupational Sex Segregation and Women's Early Career Job Shifts
Previous research has found considerable mobility between “male” and “female” occupations across the work life. This article uses employment histories from the Washington State Career Development
Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects
Does segregation arise because "female" occupations have financial advantages for women planning to spend some time as homemakers as human-capital theorists claim? Do "male" occupations have more
Male-Female Wage Differences: The Importance of Compensating Differentials
This study investigates the extent to which differences in average earnings between men and women may be the result of sorting by the sexes into jobs with different average levels of disagreeable and
Women's occupational attainment: The effects of work interruptions, self-selection, and unobserved characteristics
Abstract This paper addresses specification issues concerning the estimation of women's occupational attainment. Attainment models generally assume independence of error terms across equations, and