Jet and hydraulic jump near‐bed stresses below a horseshoe waterfall

@article{Pasternack2007JetAH,
  title={Jet and hydraulic jump near‐bed stresses below a horseshoe waterfall},
  author={Gregory Brian Pasternack and Christopher R. Ellis and Jeffrey D.G. Marr},
  journal={Water Resources Research},
  year={2007},
  volume={43}
}
Horseshoe waterfalls are a common but unexplained feature of bedrock rivers. As a step toward understanding their geomorphology, a six‐component force/torque sensor was used to evaluate clear‐water scour mechanisms in a 0.91‐m broad‐crested horseshoe waterfall built into a 2.75‐m‐wide flume to measure longitudinal, lateral, and temporal profiles of the near‐bed spatially averaged stress vector. Jet impact caused moderate near‐bed stress. Downstream of the impact point, the stress vector shifted… 
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