Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions?

  title={Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions?},
  author={Claudia E. Mills},
  • C. Mills
  • Published 1 May 2001
  • Environmental Science
  • Hydrobiologia
By the pulsed nature of their life cycles, gelatinous zooplankton come and go seasonally, giving rise in even the most undisturbed circumstances to summer blooms. Even holoplanktonic species like ctenophores increase in number in the spring or summer when planktonic food is available in greater abundance. Beyond that basic life cycle-driven seasonal change in numbers, several other kinds of events appear to be increasing the numbers of jellies present in some ecosystems. Over recent decades… 
Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations.
  • J. Purcell
  • Environmental Science
    Annual review of marine science
  • 2012
Evidence suggesting that human activities--specifically, seafood harvest, eutrophication, hard substrate additions, transport of nonindigenous species, aquaculture, and climate change--may benefit jelly populations is explored, which shows abundant jellies in areas with warm temperatures and low forage fish populations.
Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms: a review
  • J. Purcell
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • 2005
In eleven species studied from subtropical, temperate and subarctic environments, warm temperatures were related to large population sizes; three scyphozoan species in the North Sea, and one mesopelagic hydromedusan were exceptions to that trend.
Patterns of jellyfish abundance in the North Atlantic
A number of explanations have been advanced to account for the increased frequency and intensity at which jellyfish (pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores) blooms are being observed, most of which have
Impact of hypoxia on the vertical distribution of jellyfish in the Eastern Tropical Northern Pacific
Studying the vertical distributions of jellyfish in OMZs and how they interact with the oxygen minimum layer (OML) may help researchers get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and how it may change with future climate change.
Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea: implications for the ecosystem
The hypothesis that the presence of these large carnivores has affected fisheries resources, either through direct predation on larval stages, or through compe- tition for zooplankton prey is examined.
Jellyfish Modulate Bacterial Dynamic and Community Structure
The results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to ‘jellyfish - associated’ and ‘free - living’ bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition, which can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial populations dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms.
Jelly surge in the Mediterranean Sea: threat or opportunity?
The rise in water temperature in the Mediterranean Sea, and associated migrations of temperate marine biota, are occurring in the context of a global warming causing an expansion of the tropical
Questioning the Rise of Gelatinous Zooplankton in the World's Oceans
It is concluded that the current paradigm in which it is believed that there has been a global increase in gelatinous Zooplankton is unsubstantiated, and a strategy for addressing the critical questions about long-term, human-related changes in the sea as they relate to gelatinousZooplanka blooms is developed.
Are Jellyfish Taking Over The World
Research supports the notion that populations are increasing to such a level that the question ‘are jellyfish taking over the world?’ can be answered agreeing with the statement and the need for preventing the escalation of such a development is paramount.
Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review
Although recent articles state that jellyfish populations are increasing, most available evidence shows that jellyfish abundances fluctuate with climatic cycles. Reports of increasing prob- lems with


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An increase in nutrients has caused eutrophication, with outbursts of phytoplankton blooms and changes in the species composition of these algae, and regions of hypoxia and anoxia now appear on the shelf, with consequent reduction in benthic populations of invertebrates and demersal fish.
Distribution and relative importance of jellyfish in a region of hydrothermal venting
Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment
The aims of this review are to determine the role of reproduction and life history strategies of the benthic and pelagic phases of A. aurita in governing populations of medusae, with special attention given to the dynamic interaction between A. Aurita and its surrounding physical and biological environment.
A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review
The magnitude and extent of jellyfish blooms are influenced not only by the biology and behavior of the animal, but also by the geographic setting and physical environment. Hydrography alone is often
Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change
We examined quantitative catches of large medusae from summer bottom trawl surveys that sampled virtually the same grid station on the eastern Bering Sea shelf using the same methodology every year
The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: U.S. estuaries versus the Black Sea basin
The native habitats of the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis, are temperate to subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, where it is found in an extremely wide range of
Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review
  • M. Arai
  • Environmental Science
  • 2004
Typically, the diversity of pelagic coelenterates decreases, but the biomass of a small number of species may increase, and Adaptations that may allow these species to survive under eutrophic conditions are discussed.