Japan's Policies Towards the Ainu Language and Culture with Special Reference to North Fennoscandian Sami Policies

  title={Japan's Policies Towards the Ainu Language and Culture with Special Reference to North Fennoscandian Sami Policies},
  author={Hiroshi Maruyama},
  journal={Acta Borealia},
  pages={152 - 175}
Abstract Under Japan's colonization of Ainu Lands (Hokkaido, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin), the Ainu were disconnected from their lands by relocations and deprived of their language and culture by regulations. In 1899, the Hokkaido Former Aborigines Protection Act came into force to finalize the assimilation of the Ainu into Japanese society. In 1997, as a result of Ainu efforts to scrap the assimilation policies, the Ainu Culture Promotion Act (CPA) replaced the Act of 1899. The CPA was… 
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