Japan, Germany and the Idea of the Hague Peace Conferences

@article{Schlichtmann2003JapanGA,
  title={Japan, Germany and the Idea of the Hague Peace Conferences},
  author={Klaus Schlichtmann},
  journal={Journal of Peace Research},
  year={2003},
  volume={40},
  pages={377 - 394}
}
After the `opening' of Japan in 1853-54, the international system began to change from the limited, traditional European `concert of nations' to a `comity of nations', proclaiming universal norms and values. Participants in the first Hague Peace Conference - called by the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II - therefore included the USA, China, Japan, Persia, Siam (Thailand) and Turkey. The conference marked the early stages of today's International Court of Justice and the United Nations Organization… 
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