An activating 1849G>T mutation of JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) tyrosine kinase was recently described in chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). Its role in other hematologic neoplasms is unclear. We developed a quantitative pyrosequencing assay and analyzed 374 samples of hematologic neoplasms. The mutation was frequent in polycythemia vera (PV) (86%) and myelofibrosis (95%) but less prevalent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an antecedent PV or myelofibrosis (5 [36%] of 14 patients). JAK2 mutation was also detected in 3 (19%) of 16 patients with Philadelphia-chromosome (Ph)-negative chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), 2 (18%) of 11 patients with megakaryocytic AML, 7 (13%) of 52 patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and 1 (1%) of 68 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. No mutation was found in Ph(+)CML (99 patients), AML M0-M6 (28 patients), or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (20 patients). We conclude that the JAK2 1849G>T mutation is common in Ph(-) MPD but not critical for transformation to the acute phase of these diseases and that it is generally rare in aggressive leukemias.