BACKGROUND The JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with three myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). It generates an unregulated clonal hematopoietic progenitor and leads to abnormal increased proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. Subjects bearing this mutation may present more frequently with complications such as thrombosis and bleeding, and no specific treatment has yet been developed for BCR-ABL-negative JAK2 V617F-negative MPNs. AIMS To determine the prevalence of JAK2 V617F in MPNs in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to compare it with previous studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS 144 blood samples were collected at the Hospital of Hematology of the HEMOPE Foundation and were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism with BsaXI enzymatic digestion. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 88% (46/52) of the patients with PV, 47% (39/81) with ET, and 77% (8/11) with PMF were positive for JAK2 V617F, while more than 35% of the individuals were JAK2 V617F-negative, confirming a high prevalence of this abnormality in MPNs, more frequently with a low mutated allele burden, similar to what has been reported in other Western countries, despite differences among methods used to detect this mutation. Screening for JAK2 V617F may allow specific management of these diseases with JAK2 inhibitors in the future and highlights the need for further studies on the pathogenesis of BCR-ABL-negative JAK2 V617F-negative MPNs.