Measurement of adaptability and stability of a breed in different environmental conditions might be assumed as good indicator for ecological, ethological and ethical norms in animal production. Indeed, a good adaptability and stability in reproduction performances, in a given environment, can be assumed as a proof that animals are in good well-being condition. The aim of this study was to assess adaptability and stability indexes for fertility traits of four local chicken breeds (the Ermellinata di Rovigo: PER, the Pèpoi: PPP, the Robusta Lionata: PRL and the Robusta Maculata: PRM) reared in three different environments (mountain, hill and plain areas) of the Veneto region. Data consisted on 338 hatchings recorded from February 2002 to May 2004. The percentages of fertile eggs per hatching (pFE), non-hatched eggs per hatching (pNH) and percentage of chicks born alive (pBA) were used as dependent variables. An ANOVA for each reproduction trait was performed to estimate genotype by environment (GxE) interaction. A high GxE interaction was detected for all reproduction traits in particular for pBA. The PER was the best breed in terms of adaptability and stability. On the contrary, the breed that showed to be poorly adapted to all environments and scarce stability over time was PPP. The PRL and PRM seem to be more similar to PPP than PER. In conclusion, more study on GxE interaction should be done to obtain more information on adaptability and stability of animal breeds in different environmental and time period conditions. Animal welfare and relationship between animal and environment should be known and subsequently used for defining better norms and rules for a modern animal production activities.