# Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent

@article{Press2012IteratedPD, title={Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent}, author={William H. Press and Freeman J. Dyson}, journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences}, year={2012}, volume={109}, pages={10409 - 10413} }

The two-player Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game is a model for both sentient and evolutionary behaviors, especially including the emergence of cooperation. It is generally assumed that there exists no simple ultimatum strategy whereby one player can enforce a unilateral claim to an unfair share of rewards. Here, we show that such strategies unexpectedly do exist. In particular, a player X who is witting of these strategies can (i) deterministically set her opponent Y’s score, independently of…

## 530 Citations

Extortion and Evolution in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

- Economics
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The Prisoner’s Dilemma is a two player game where playing rationally leads to a suboptimal outcome for both players. The game is simple to analyze, but when it is played repeatedly, complex dynamics…

Extortion and Evolution in the Iterated Prisoner ’ s Dilemma

- Economics
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The Prisoner’s Dilemma is a two player game where playing rationally leads to a suboptimal outcome for both players. The game is simple to analyze, but when it is played repeatedly, complex dynamics…

Evolution of extortion in Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma games

- EconomicsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 2013

It is shown that in reasonably large populations, so-called zero-determinant strategies can act as catalysts for the evolution of cooperation, similar to tit-for-tat, but that they are not the stable outcome of natural selection.

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- Economics
- 2013

There exist Markov strategies which solve the problem when the authors restrict attention to the long term average payoff for the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and these good strategies effectively stabilize cooperative behavior.

TURAN: Evolving non-deterministic players for the iterated prisoner's dilemma

- Computer Science2014 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC)
- 2014

Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to obtain good performances against different kind of opponent, whether their strategies can or cannot be implemented as finite state machines.

Payoff Control in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

- EconomicsIJCAI
- 2018

Under the conventional iterated prisoner’s dilemma, this work develops a general framework for controlling the feasible region where the players’ payoff pairs lie and shows that the control strategies perform well either in a tournament or against a human-like opponent.

Win-Stay-Lose-Shift as a self-confirming equilibrium in the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma

- PsychologyProceedings of the Royal Society B
- 2021

It is argued that players can escape from full defection into a cooperative equilibrium supported by Win-Stay-Lose-Shift in a self-confirming manner, provided that the cost of cooperation is low and the observational learning supplies sufficiently large uncertainty.

The Robustness of Extortion in Iterated Prisoner ’ s Dilemma ∗

- Economics
- 2012

Press and Dyson (2012) discovered a special set of strategies, called extortionate strategies, in the two-player Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Surprisingly, a player using such strategies obtains an…

Only Two Types of Strategies Enforce Linear Payoff Relationships Under Observation Errors in Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Games

- EconomicsArtificial Life Conference Proceedings
- 2019

The repeated prisoner’s dilemma (RPD) game has revealed how cooperation and competition arise among competitive players in long-run relationships. In the RPD game with no errors, zero-determinant…

Zero-determinant strategies in iterated multi-strategy games

- MathematicsArXiv
- 2014

A theory for zero-determinant strategies for multi-strategy games, with any number of strategies, is developed and can be seen as degenerate case of the iterated prisoner's dilemma.

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