Item-specific control of automatic processes: Stroop process dissociations

@article{Jacoby2003ItemspecificCO,
  title={Item-specific control of automatic processes: Stroop process dissociations},
  author={Larry L. Jacoby and D. Stephen Lindsay and Sandra Hessels},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
  year={2003},
  volume={10},
  pages={638-644}
}
The influence of word reading on Stroop color naming decreases as a function of the proportion of test items that are incongruent. This proportion-congruent effect is usually ascribed to strategies (e.g., maintaining task set) that operate at a general level to moderate the extent to which participants are influenced by word reading. However, in three experiments, effects at the level of specific items were found. Interference and facilitation were smaller for color names usually presented in… 
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  • J. Bugg, K. Hutchison
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 2013
TLDR
Novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item- specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account.
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It is shown that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is accompanied by a change in neutral trial color-naming performance and that list-level attenuation of word reading led to a cost to performance on a secondary prospective memory task but only when that task required processing of the irrelevant, neutral word.
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TLDR
Findings support the idea that multiple levels of control are used in reducing Stroop interference, whereby interference is reduced strategically in lists that include disproportionately more incongruent trials.
Item-specific control of attention in the Stroop task: Contingency learning is not the whole story in the item-specific proportion-congruent effect
TLDR
The results challenge not only the contingency-learning account of the ISPC effect, an account that denies the existence of a conflict- Adaptation process, but also control accounts that assume that, although conflict-adaptation processes do exist, they are not used when contingency learning is also possible.
RETRACTED ARTICLE: Losing control: Mostly incongruent lists postpone, but do not eliminate, the Stroop effect
TLDR
The time course of the Stroop effect was explored using speed-accuracy tradeoff functions (SATfs) in tasks with 50 % congruent, MC, and MI trials, consistent with the idea that the strategic control of the word pathway is an effortful, temporary phenomenon, prone to buckle if responding is held in check.
Congruency precues moderate item-specific proportion congruency effects
TLDR
The results suggest that precueing influences engagement in proactive control and, as a result, reduces the impact of item-specific and list-based tendencies to direct attention toward or away from word reading.
Dissociating Levels of Cognitive Control
Attention is often imperfect; cognitive control is needed to counteract the tendency to attend to distractors that are incompatible with current goals. Cognitive psychologists have long explored
Developmental differences in the use of task goals in a cued version of the stroop task.
TLDR
Findings indicate that children have difficulty maintaining task goals in order to suppress stronger, goal-irrelevant responses.
The context-specific proportion congruent Stroop effect: Location as a contextual cue
TLDR
The results suggest that processes other than learning of word—response associations can produce contextual control over Stroop interference, and an item-specific proportion congruent effect that cannot be explained by such word— response associations is demonstrated.
Additive Effects of Item-Specific and Congruency Sequence Effects in the Vocal Stroop Task
TLDR
The finding that frequently occurring congruent items exhibit greater interference than items that are often incongruent is suggested, suggesting the CSE in Stroop may reflect a more general response adjustment process that is not directly tied to trial-by-trial changes in attentional control.
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