Italian versus Eastern Valentinianism

  title={Italian versus Eastern Valentinianism},
  author={Joel Kalvesmaki},
  journal={Vigiliae Christianae},
Three ancient texts seem to attest to a division between eastern and western Valentinians. Closer analysis of these three texts suggests that such a conclusion would be too hasty. The first text, the title to one of Clement of Alexandria's works, is either unreliable or so specific that it calls into doubt the division. Hippolytus's testimony, the second text, is so laden with problems that it reliably attests to merely the existence of the Eastern Teaching, and possibly to its distinctive… 
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