Itaconic acid is a mammalian metabolite induced during macrophage activation.

@article{Strelko2011ItaconicAI,
  title={Itaconic acid is a mammalian metabolite induced during macrophage activation.},
  author={Cheryl L Strelko and Wenyun Lu and Fay J. Dufort and Thomas N. Seyfried and Thomas C. Chiles and Joshua D. Rabinowitz and Mary F. Roberts},
  journal={Journal of the American Chemical Society},
  year={2011},
  volume={133 41},
  pages={16386-9}
}
Itaconic acid (ITA), or methylenesuccinic acid, is not generally classified as a mammalian metabolite. Using NMR-based metabolomics and (13)C-labeling, we have detected ITA in both macrophage-like VM-M3 and RAW 264.7 tumor cell lines as well as stimulated and unstimulated primary murine macrophages. Macrophage activation by addition of lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ markedly increased ITA production and secretion. Crude cell extracts synthesize ITA via decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, indicative… CONTINUE READING