It ’ s the first bites that count : Survival of first-instar monarchs on milkweeds

  title={It ’ s the first bites that count : Survival of first-instar monarchs on milkweeds},
  author={Myron Zalucki and Stephen B. Malcolm and Timothy D. Paine and Christopher C. Hanlon and Lincoln Pierson Brower and Anthony R Clarke},
Mortality of first instars is generally very high, but variable, and is caused by many factors, including physical and chemical plant characters, weather and natural enemies. Here, a summary of detailed field-based studies of the early-stage survival of a specialist lepidopteran herbivore is presented. First-instar larvae of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, a milkweed specialist, generally grew faster and survived better on leaves when latex flow was reduced by partial severance of the… CONTINUE READING
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