Issues in ecological risk assessment: the CRAM perspective.

  title={Issues in ecological risk assessment: the CRAM perspective.},
  author={Lawrence W Barnthouse},
  journal={Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis},
  volume={14 3},
In 1989, a Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology (CRAM) was convened by the National Research Council (NRC) to identify and investigate important scientific issues in risk assessment. One of the first issues considered by the committee was the development of a conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment, defined as "the characterization of the adverse ecological effects of environmental exposures to hazards imposed by human activities." Adverse ecological effects include all… CONTINUE READING