In vitro inhibition of breast cancer spheroid-induced lymphendothelial defects resembling intravasation into the lymphatic vasculature by acetohexamide, isoxsuprine, nifedipin and proadifen
Isoxsuprine hydrochloride has been suggested for use in horses for treatment of navicular syndrome and laminitis. The drug has been shown to be a beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist with beta-adrenoreceptor agonistic properties, with both characteristics contributing to vasodilation and uterine relaxation. In addition, the drug is capable of decreasing blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Studies have shown i.v. isoxsuprine to have a plasma half-life of <3 h with a large apparent volume of distribution. Cardiovascular effects resolve rapidly following i.v. administration, but are absent with oral dosing. Oral bioavailability is 2.2% with a high first pass effect. Isoxsuprine has an apparent affinity for melanin that may contribute to extended renal excretion. Clinical trials appear to support the use of isoxsuprine for treatment of navicular disease. However, poor bioavailability, lack of cardiovascular effects following oral administration, superficial support in clinical trials, and new evidence regarding the pathogenesis of navicular syndrome indicate that the use of isoxsuprine for treatment of navicular syndrome or laminitis is questionable at best.