Isovaleroyl triglycerides from the blubber and melon oils of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

  title={Isovaleroyl triglycerides from the blubber and melon oils of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)},
  author={Carter Litchfield and Robert G. Ackman and J. C. Sipos and C. A. Eaton},
The fatty acid compositions of the blubber and melon oils from the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) have been determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The melon oil contains a high level (60.1 mole %) of isovaleric acid, substantial amounts of long chain branched acids (16.9%), and very little polyunsaturated material (0.5%). The blubber oil contains less isovaleric (13.2%), fewer long chain branched acids (2.7%), and appreciable amounts (10.9%) of the polyunsaturated acids typical of… 

Unusual lipids II: Head oil of the north Atlantic pilot whale,Globicephala melaena melaena

Pilot whale head oil (blackfish head oil, raw) was analyzed by means of IR spectroscopy, NMR, thin layer chromatography, and gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to rule out direct interconversion of all fatty acids and alcohols.

Lipids of freshwater dolphinSotalia fluviatilis: Comparison of odontocete bioacoustic lipids and habitat

Comparison of their respective bioacoustical lipid compositions shows distinctive types of head fats, Sotalia being rich in iso-5∶0 andIndia lacking iso- 5∶ 0, which indicates that isovaleric acid per se has no obligatory role in dolphin echolocation.

Distinctive medium chain wax esters, triglycerides, and diacyl glyceryl ethers in the head fats of the pacific beaked whale,Berardius bairdi

The distinctive medium chain neutral lipids in the jaw and melon fats of this whale may be related to the postulated acoustical role of these tissues in echolocation.

Molecular species of wax esters in jaw fat of atlantic bottlenose dolphin,Tursiops truncatus

Gas liquid chromatography of the intact, hydrogenated >C24 esters on a short JXR column has characterized them according to carbon number and the number of methyl branches they contain.

Variations in lipid composition and sound velocity in melon from the North Atlantic pilot whale,Globicephala melaena melaena

Findings are compatible with predictions based on the known correlations between lipid structure and sound velocity and additional evidence for refraction of sound in pilot whale melon is presented.

Function and evolution of specialized endogenous lipids in toothed whales

  • H. Koopman
  • Physics
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2018
It is proposed that these specialized lipids evolved first in the head: wax synthesis first emerged to serve an acoustic function in toothed whales, with branched-chain synthesis adding additional acoustic focusing power, and some species secondarily retained wax synthesis pathways for blubber.

Transcriptomic Insight into the Melon Morphology of Toothed Whales for Aquatic Molecular Developments

The outer layer of the melon’s ML4 region played multifunctional roles and 36 differentially expressed genes of outer melon included ASB5, MYH13, MYOM2, and MYOM3, which are associated with muscle function and energy metabolism.

Positional analysis of isovaleroyl triglycerides using proton magnetic resonance with Eu(fod)3 and Pr(fod)3 shift reagents: II. Cetacean triglycerides

The positional distribution of isovaleric acid in natural cetacean triglycerides has been studied using proton magnetic resonance with lanthanide shift reagents and Isovaleric acid was found esterified only at the 1,3-positions in the monoisovaleroyl and diisovaleroysl triglycerides of these animals.

Ontogeny and organization of acoustic lipids in jaw fats of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Fine-scale topographic distribution and rapid ontogenetic accumulation of branched-chain (iso) fatty acids (FA) in jaw fat and cranial blubber of bottlenose dolphins and patterns were apparent in cranial tissues even earlier; at the fetal stage.

Morphology of the melon and its tendinous connections to the facial muscles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

This study is the first to identify that each caudal melon terminates in a lipid cup that envelopes the echolocation sound generators, and suggests that these muscles could function to change the frequency, beam width, and directionality of the emitted sound beam in bottlenose dolphins.



The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid

The most interesting finding was withaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2–29.8% trilaurin, which indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobILis seed enzymes.

(S)-1,2-diacyl-3-acetins: Optically active triglycerides fromEuonymus verrucosus seed oil

Comparison with synthetic products of known configuration shows that the natural material is essentially all (S)-1,2-diacyl-3-acetin, and the presence of monoacetotriglycerides in seven species of Celastraceae and five species in three other plant families is indicated.

Gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides from erucic acid oils and fish oils

By critically selecting optimum operating conditions, quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides has been extended to molecules containing substantial amounts of C20, C22, and C24 fatty acids, and conclusions about the triglyceride composition of the fats analyzed are discussed.

Gas chromatographic resolution of butteroil and synthetic triglycerides beyond their carbon numbers

Preparative gas chromatography was used to isolate the C26 to C38 triglycerides of butteroil in groups of uniform molecular weight. Determination of fatty acids allowed a preliminary assignment of

Some Linear, Iso, Anteiso, and Multiple-Branched Fatty Acids of Marine Origin: Analyses on Packed and Open-Tubular Gas–Liquid Chromatographic Columns with Particular Reference to Pristanic and Phytanic Acids

The analysis of esters of saturated fatty acids isolated from marine lipids, or of the saturated esters produced by hydrogenation of whole ester mixtures, must be carried out on both polar and

Structure of Milk Fat Triglycerides

Summary The distribution of fatty acids among the triglycerides of milk fat was studied by thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) techniques and lipase hydrolysis. The triglycerides were first separated

Synthesis and analysis of optically active triglycerides

  • W. Schlenk
  • Chemistry
    Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
  • 1965
Physical-chemical methods for steric analysis of asymmetrical triglycerides and 1,3-diglycerides and the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R,S nomenclature to glycerides are investigated and their physical data are given.


The procedure developed is simple, rapid, and generally applicable t o lipids, and the results did not affect the validity of the method.

Systematic identification of fatty acids in the gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters: a preliminary survey of seal oil.

The fatty acids of a commercial seal blubber oil have been surveyed by application of the linear log plot and separation factor procedures to the gas–liquid chromatograms of methyl esters obtained from solvent-free gas and liquid chromatography.

Interesterification. I. Change of glyceride composition during the course of interesterification

Changes in composition produced in monounsaturated triglycerides during the course of interesterification, before full randomization is achieved, have been followed by using thin-layer