Isolation of two novel neuropeptides from sea anemones: The unusual, biologically active L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2 and its des-phenyllactyl fragment Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2

@article{Nothacker1991IsolationOT,
  title={Isolation of two novel neuropeptides from sea anemones: The unusual, biologically active L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2 and its des-phenyllactyl fragment Tyr-Arg-Ile-NH2
},
  author={Hans Peter Nothacker and Kenneth L. Rinehart and I. D. Mcfarlane and Cornelis J P Grimmelikhuijzen},
  journal={Peptides},
  year={1991},
  volume={12},
  pages={1165-1173}
}
The expansion behaviour of sea anemones may be coordinated by two inhibitory neuropeptides, Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide
TLDR
It is hypothesize that nerve cells that release Antho-KAamide andAntho-RIamide are involved in the expansion phase of feeding behaviour in sea anemones.
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The results suggested that glycoprotein hormones and possibly all the processes that are mediated by these types of receptors are conserved throughout the animal kingdom, from cnidarians to mammals.
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Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system. In the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians, peptides play important roles as neurotransmitters or neurohormones. So far, we have
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By using neuropeptide immunocytochemistry, it is found that the cnidarian nervous system is more sophisticated than the authors believed before, having neuronal concentrations in the form of ganglion-like structures, neuronal plexuses and nerve tracts.
A comparative genomics study of neuropeptide genes in the cnidarian subclasses Hexacorallia and Ceriantharia
TLDR
An annotated the neuropeptide preprohormone genes of twenty species belonging to the subclass Hexacorallia or Ceriantharia (Anthozoa: Cnidaria), using thirty-seven publicly accessible genome or transcriptome databases to find N-phenyllactyl-peptides appear to be confined to the hexacor allian order Actiniaria and do not occur in other cnidarians.
Chemical transmission in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: A genomic perspective.
  • M. Anctil
  • Biology
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Invertebrate neurohormones and their receptors.
TLDR
During the “boom” of neuropeptide discoveries in the 1970s and 1980s, it has become increasingly clear that neuropePTides are not a characteristic of higher nervous systems, but, instead, have a long evolutionary history.
The nervous systems of cnidarians.
TLDR
Using immuno-electronmicroscopy, it is found that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites, which indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters.
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Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group.
TLDR
It is proposed that the L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.
Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones.
TLDR
Three different methods established that the structure of the Anthopleura RFamide peptide (Antho- RFamide) is pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2, which is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones.
Cardioactive neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) and novel related peptides are encoded in multiple copies by a single gene in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis
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The organization of the Lymnaea gene is significant with respect to the evolution of FMRFamide and related peptides in other organisms.
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Using immunocytochemistry with antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), RFamide-like peptides were demonstrated in the nervous systems of all classes of coelenterates, indicating that these neuropeptides play a role in neurotransmission.
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It is concluded that contractions evoked by Antho-RFamide may be partly due to neuronal activity, but probably also involve direct excitation of the muscles.
Three Anthozoan Neuropeptides, Antho-RFamide and Antho-RWamides I and II, Modulate Spontaneous Tentacle Contractions in Sea Anemones
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For the first time, peptide transmitter candidates with an inhibitory action in sea anemones are identified and report the actions of these three neuropeptides on spontaneous contractions of isolated tentacles.
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In the present work the COOH-terminal fragments of polypeptides containing characteristic alpha-amide groups were released enzymatically and then converted into the fluorescent dansyl derivatives, which were identified by thin-layer chromatography.
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