The fourth component of rat complement was purified to homogeneity by sequential chromatography of rat plasma in benzamidine on QAE-A50, SP-C50, hydroxyapatite, and gel filtration on Bio-Gel A 1.5. The final material was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE analysis and had a calculated m.w. of 198,000. A monospecific antibody against rat C4 was obtained from immunized rabbits. The concentration of rat C4 in the plasma of normal 4-month-old Wistar rats was 190 +/- 34 microgram/ml (mean +/- 1 S.D.).