Isolation of novel virus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis

@article{Simons1995IsolationON,
  title={Isolation of novel virus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis},
  author={John N. Simons and Thomas P. Leary and George J. Dawson and Tami J. Pilot‐Matias and Anthony S. Muerhoff and George G. Schlauder and Suresh M. Desai and IsaK. Mushahwar},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  year={1995},
  volume={1},
  pages={564-569}
}
Two viruses, GB virus A (GBV-A) and GB virus B (GBV-B), were recently identified in the GB hepatitis agent. Human sera containing antibodies that recognize GBV-A and/or GBV-B recombinant proteins were subjected to polymerase chain reaction studies with degenerate oligonucleotides capable of amplifying a segment of the putative helicase genes from GBV-A, GBV-B or hepatitis C virus. Novel sequences related to members of the Flaviviridae were identified in sera from 12 individuals including 4… 
Novelity in GB virus C/hepatitis G virus and its controversy.
TLDR
Three viruses, identified by investigators at Abbott Labs, have been termed GB-A, GB-B and GB-C, which are likely tamarin viruses whereasGB-C infects humans only and is highly controversial virus regarding pathogenecity, mode of transmission and site of replication.
GB virus B as a model for hepatitis C virus.
TLDR
GBV-B is phylogenetically most closely related to HCV and causes an acute, self-resolving hepatitis in tamarins as indicated by an increase in alanine aminotransferase and changes in liver histology, and shared protease substrate specificities suggest that GBV- B may be useful in testing antiviral compounds for activity against HCV.
Molecular cloning and characterization of a GB virus C isolate from a patient with non-A-E hepatitis.
TLDR
The full-length genomic sequence of GBV-C(EA), isolated from an East African suffering from acute non-A-E hepatitis, is reported, demonstrating a high degree of amino acid conservation across the precursor polyproteins of these isolates and the lack of 'hypervariable' regions within the envelope proteins.
Molecular cloning and characterization of a GB virus C isolate from a patient with nonA-E hepatitis
TLDR
The full-length genomic sequence of GBV-C(EA), isolated from an East African suffering from acute non-A-E hepatitis, was compared with the prototype West African isolate, and the two HGV isolates from the United States and demonstrates several characteristics of these novel viruses.
Toward a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus: An infectious molecular clone of the GB virus-B hepatitis agent.
TLDR
The development of severe hepatitis in both tamarins infected with the recombinant GBV-B virus provides formal proof that GBV -B is a true hepatitis virus.
GB virus C/hepatitis G virus and other putative hepatitis non A-E viruses.
TLDR
The identification of the major agents causing human hepatitis (Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E Viruses) was achieved during the last 30 years but there are still some cases epidemiologically related to infectious agents without any evidence of infection with known virus, designated as hepatitis non A-E.
Identification of antigenic regions in the GB hepatitis viruses GBV‐A, GBV‐B, and GBV‐C
TLDR
Overlapping clones encompassing the large open reading frames of these three viruses have been expressed in E. coli as CTP:CMP‐3‐deoxy‐D‐manno‐octulosonate cytidylyltransferase (CKS) fusion proteins and smaller overlapping clones were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and tested by Western blot.
GBV-C/HGV: a new human hepatitis-related virus.
The GB Viruses: An Update of Their Biology, Molecular Virology and Significance
TLDR
In the quest to identify further viruses associated with hepatitis, three new viruses were cloned and assigned to the Flaviviridae family in the mid-1990s, and what is known of the natural history, virology and molecular biology of these viruses is reviewed.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES
Identification of two flavivirus-like genomes in the GB hepatitis agent.
TLDR
Limited sequence identity with various isolates of hepatitis C virus and the relative positions of putative RNA helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in the predicted protein products of these molecules suggested that the GB agent contains two unique flavivirus-like genomes.
Molecular and serologic analysis in the transmission of the GB hepatitis agents
Two flavivirus‐like genomes have recently been cloned fron infectious tamarin (Saguinus labiatus) serum, derived from the human viral hepatitis GB strain, which is known to induce hepatitits in
Use of a signature nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus for detection of viral RNA in human serum and plasma
TLDR
Although the clinical significance of the presence or absence of HCV RNA in samples from patients is not fully understood, the use of probes and primers from the 5PUT region should not lead to false-negative results due to nucleic acid sequence variations in viral isolates.
An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis
TLDR
Assays of ten blood transfusions in the United States that resulted in chronic NANBH revealed that there was at least one positive blood donor in nine of these cases and that all ten recipients seroconverted during their illnesses.
Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region.
TLDR
A new nomenclature for HCV variants is proposed in this communication that reflects the two-tiered nature of sequence differences between different viral isolates and describes criteria that would enable new variants to be assigned within the classification as they are discovered.
Typing of hepatitis C virus isolates and characterization of new subtypes using a line probe assay.
A reverse-hybridization assay, the line probe assay (LiPA), based on variations found in the 5' untranslated regions of the different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes was developed, permitting
Entire nucleotide sequence and characterization of a hepatitis C virus of genotype V/3a.
TLDR
The NZL1 genome was compared with 15 HCV isolates of other genotypes for which the full-length sequence has been determined and differed from them by 31.1 to 34.3% in nucleotide sequence identity and by 24.5 to 29.1% in amino acid sequence identity, confirming the distinction of genotype V/3a from the other isolates.
At least 12 genotypes of hepatitis C virus predicted by sequence analysis of the putative E1 gene of isolates collected worldwide.
TLDR
The complete nucleotide sequence of the putative envelope 1 (E1) gene in 51 HCV isolates from around the world is determined and it is found that they could be grouped into at least 12 distinct genotypes, with important implications for HCV diagnosis and vaccine development.
...
...