Isolation of a bacterial enzyme releasing axillary malodor and its use as a screening target for novel deodorant formulations 1

@article{Natsch2005IsolationOA,
  title={Isolation of a bacterial enzyme releasing axillary malodor and its use as a screening target for novel deodorant formulations 1},
  author={Andreas Natsch and Hans Gfeller and Peter Gygax and Joachim Schmid},
  journal={International Journal of Cosmetic Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={27}
}
Axillary odor is known since 50 years to be formed upon the action of Corynebacteria on odorless axilla secretions, but the nature of the bacterial enzymes involved in this process remained a mystery. We identified the known axilla odor determinant 3‐methyl‐2‐hexenoic acid in hydrolyzed axilla secretions along with a new, chemically related compound, 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methyl‐hexanoic acid. The natural, odorless precursors of both these acids were purified from non‐hydrolyzed fresh axilla secretions… 
Validation of a malodour-forming enzyme as a target for deodorant actives: in vivo testing of a glutamine conjugate targeting a corynebacterial Nα-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase†
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The studies presented here clearly validate Nα-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase as a target for deodorant actives, and they demonstrate that a significant benefit can be achieved especially in individuals developing stronger axillary odour.
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Considering the previously reported role of β‐oxidation in odour formation, the genetic repertoire of eight Corynebacterium species concerning fatty acid metabolism was analysed and particularly focused on the metabolic abilities of the lipophilic axillary isolate CoryneBacterium jeikeium K411.
A functional ABCC11 allele is essential in the biochemical formation of human axillary odor.
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Evidence is provided that the gene ABCC11 (MRP8), which encodes an apical efflux pump, is crucial for the formation of the characteristic axillary odor and that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 538G --> A, which is prominent among Asian people, leads to a nearly complete loss of the typical odor components in axillary sweat.
The specific biochemistry of human axilla odour formation viewed in an evolutionary context
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The crystal structure of the Nα-acyl-aminoacylase, a key human odour-releasing enzyme, is presented for the first time, thus describing at the molecular level how bacteria on the skin surface have adapted their enzyme to the specific substrates secreted by the human host.
Transcriptional control of lipid metabolism by the MarR-like regulator FamR and the global regulator GlxR in the lipophilic axilla isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium K411
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First light is shed on the hierarchical transcriptional control of lipid metabolism in C. jeikeium, a pathway associated with the development of human axillary odour, by revealing a hierarchical control of fadE6 transcription by a feed‐forward loop.
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