Isolation of a bacterial enzyme releasing axillary malodor and its use as a screening target for novel deodorant formulations 1

  title={Isolation of a bacterial enzyme releasing axillary malodor and its use as a screening target for novel deodorant formulations 1},
  author={Andreas Natsch and Hans Gfeller and Peter Gygax and Joachim Schmid},
  journal={International Journal of Cosmetic Science},
Axillary odor is known since 50 years to be formed upon the action of Corynebacteria on odorless axilla secretions, but the nature of the bacterial enzymes involved in this process remained a mystery. We identified the known axilla odor determinant 3‐methyl‐2‐hexenoic acid in hydrolyzed axilla secretions along with a new, chemically related compound, 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methyl‐hexanoic acid. The natural, odorless precursors of both these acids were purified from non‐hydrolyzed fresh axilla secretions… 
Validation of a malodour-forming enzyme as a target for deodorant actives: in vivo testing of a glutamine conjugate targeting a corynebacterial Nα-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase†
The studies presented here clearly validate Nα-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase as a target for deodorant actives, and they demonstrate that a significant benefit can be achieved especially in individuals developing stronger axillary odour.
Molecular basis of human body odour formation: insights deduced from corynebacterial genome sequences
Considering the previously reported role of β‐oxidation in odour formation, the genetic repertoire of eight Corynebacterium species concerning fatty acid metabolism was analysed and particularly focused on the metabolic abilities of the lipophilic axillary isolate CoryneBacterium jeikeium K411.
A functional ABCC11 allele is essential in the biochemical formation of human axillary odor.
Evidence is provided that the gene ABCC11 (MRP8), which encodes an apical efflux pump, is crucial for the formation of the characteristic axillary odor and that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 538G --> A, which is prominent among Asian people, leads to a nearly complete loss of the typical odor components in axillary sweat.
The specific biochemistry of human axilla odour formation viewed in an evolutionary context
The crystal structure of the Nα-acyl-aminoacylase, a key human odour-releasing enzyme, is presented for the first time, thus describing at the molecular level how bacteria on the skin surface have adapted their enzyme to the specific substrates secreted by the human host.
Transcriptional control of lipid metabolism by the MarR-like regulator FamR and the global regulator GlxR in the lipophilic axilla isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium K411
First light is shed on the hierarchical transcriptional control of lipid metabolism in C. jeikeium, a pathway associated with the development of human axillary odour, by revealing a hierarchical control of fadE6 transcription by a feed‐forward loop.
12 The Family Corynebacteriaceae
Members of the family Corynebacteriaceae are found in diverse environments and some species are used in industrial applications and food production, whereas other species are serious pathogens of humans or domestic animals.
The influence of thermal reaction and microbial transformation on the odour of human urine
The typical stale urine odour is the consequence of thermal or bacterial degradation. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, equipped with a multi-sniffing port for olfactive evaluation (GC-MS-O), was
Controlled release of volatiles under mild reaction conditions: from nature to everyday products.
The controlled chemical release of fragrances is described and additional challenges such as precursor stability during product storage as well as some aspects concerning toxicity and biodegradability are discussed.
Skin microbiology, body odor, and methylotrophic bacteria
The skin microflora, glandular secretions by the skin, and transformations of anthropogenic precursors into odorous compounds by bacteria are described, and the gaps in the understanding of the significance of odor formation and its control are identified.
A new Twist : Free acids and phenols
  • Chemistry
  • 2016
Sorptive Extraction (HSSE) have regularly been applied successfully to the analysis of odor-active chemicals in a wide variety of sample matrices at concentrations as low as ultra-trace levels. The


An investigation of human apocrine gland secretion for axillary odor precursors
Results suggest that a water-soluble precursor(s) is converted by the axillary flora to the characteristic axillary odors.
The microbiology of the human axilla and its relationship to axillary odor.
The axillary microflora of 229 subjects was characterized quantitatively and the results correlated with whether the odor was pungent body odor or instead a faint "acid odor". The axillary flora was
Analysis of characteristic odors from human male axillae
A number of studies concerning the analysis of axillary odors have assumed that the characteristic odor produced in the axillae is due to volatile steroids and isovaleric acid. Organoleptic
Axillary odor; experimental study of the role of bacteria, apocrine sweat, and deodorants.
In studying the physiology of the apocrine gland, the lack of appreciable odor in pure apocrine sweat as it relates to racial differences in body odor has been impressed.
Normal axillary skin in various populations
There was a significant correlation between coryneform‐dominated floras and the occurrence of erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris and pronounced axillary odour.
Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.
A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original.
Normal axillary skin microflora in various populations.
A Specific Bacterial Aminoacylase Cleaves Odorant Precursors Secreted in the Human Axilla*
This is the first report of the structure elucidation of precursors for human body odorants and the isolation of the bacterial enzyme involved in their cleavage.
  • Medicine
    What's new
  • 1954