Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

  title={Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal},
  author={Russell H. Vreeland and William D. Rosenzweig and Dennis W. Powers},
Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25–30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species… 
New evidence for 250 Ma age of halotolerant bacterium from a Permian salt crystal
The purported oldest living organism, the spore-forming bacterium Virgibacillus sp. Perm- ian strain 2-9-3, was recently cultured from a brine inclusion in halite of the 250 Ma Permian Salado
The Permian bacterium that isn't.
The proof-of- the-pudding-is-in-the-eating principle is applied to test whether the newly reported B. permians 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence is ancient or not.
The complete genome of a viable archaeum isolated from 123-million-year-old rock salt.
This study is the first one to publish the complete genome of an organism originating from surface-sterilized ancient halite, and can become a key factor in understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are able to survive in harsh conditions deep underground or possibly on other celestial bodies.
Halophilic Archaea Cultivated from Surface Sterilized Middle-Late Eocene Rock Salt Are Polyploid
The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.
Fatty acid and DNA analyses of Permian bacteria isolated from ancient salt crystals reveal differences with their modern relatives
Comparisons between the Permian microbes and other isolates to which they appear related show that these bacteria are not identical and help to rule out questions of contamination by putatively modern strains.
Micrococcus luteus - Survival in Amber
Evidence is demonstrated supporting the view that non-spore-forming cocci from a 120-million-year-old block of amber have numerous adaptations for survival in extreme, nutrient-poor environments, traits that will assist in this bacteria’s persistence and dispersal in the environment.
Halophilic Archaea cultured from ancient halite, Death
Halophilic Archaea cultured from ancient fluid inclinations in a 90-m-long salt core from Death Valley, California, demonstrate survival of bacterial cells in subsurface halite for up to 34 000 years.
Characterization of ancient DNA supports long-term survival of Haloarchaea.
This work uses amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA to investigate the authenticity of halophilic archaea cultured from subsurface halite, Death Valley, California, 22,000 to 34,000 years old and provides the best independent support to date for the long-term survival of halophile archaea in ancient halite.
Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments
Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp.


Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from Amber
The culture of bacteria from Dominican and previously untested 120 million year old Israeli (Lebanese lode) amber is reported and the internal topography of an amber slice is mapped.
Bacillus marismortui sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic species from the Dead Sea.
The isolates isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples collected 57 years ago should be regarded as members of a new species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marismortui sp.
Halococcus salifodinae sp. nov., an Archaeal Isolate from an Austrian Salt Mine
A novel extremely halophilic archaeon (archaebacterium) was isolated from rock salt obtained from an Austrian salt mine and it is proposed that this isolate should be recognized as a new species and should be named Halococcus salifodinae.
Distribution and diversity of halophilic bacteria in a subsurface salt formation
A biochemical comparison between ten known species of halophilic bacteria, and strains isolated from both the mine and nearby surface hypersaline lakes, showed the presence of extreme halophiles with wide biochemical diversity, some of which could prove to represent previously undescribed groups.
Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber.
A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber that indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.
Bacillus salexigens sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic Bacillus species.
Six moderately halophilic, grampositive, rod-shaped strains isolated from salterns and hypersaline soils located in different geographical areas of Spain constitute a homology group with levels of DNA-DNA homology ranging from 73 to 100%.
Staphylococcus succinus sp. nov., isolated from Dominican amber.
The results indicate that AMg-D1T and AMG-D2 represent a novel species, which was named Staphylococcus succinus sp.
Virgibacillus : a new genus to accommodate Bacillus pantothenticus (Proom and Knight 1950). Emended description of Virgibacillus pantothenticus
The species Virgibacillus pantothenticus and related organisms comprising this new genus can be distinguished fromMembers of Bacillus rRNA group 1 (Bacillus sensu stricto), and from members of Paenibacillin and other aerobic endospore-forming bacteria by routine phenotypic tests.
Gracilibacillus gen. nov., with description of Gracilibacillus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov.; transfer of Bacillus dipsosauri to Gracilibacillus dipsosauri comb. nov., and Bacillus salexigens to the genus Salibacillus gen. nov., as Salibacillus salexigens comb. nov.
On the basis of the 16S rDNA data, chemotaxonomy and the physiology of strain NNT, it is proposed that this organism is a member of a new species, within a new genus, for which the name Gracilibacillus halotolerans is proposed.
Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Environments
Introduction Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Halophilic Microorganisms - An Overview, A. Oren Diversity and Ecology Diversity of Members of the Family Halobacteriaceae, M. Kamekura Contribution