Isolation of Leu-Pro-Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Arg-Pro-NH2 (Antho-RPamide), an N-terminally protected, biologically active neuropeptide from sea anemones

@article{Carstensen1992IsolationOL,
  title={Isolation of Leu-Pro-Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Arg-Pro-NH2 (Antho-RPamide), an N-terminally
 protected, biologically active neuropeptide from sea anemones},
  author={Klaus Carstensen and Kenneth L. Rinehart and I. D. Mcfarlane and Cornelis J P Grimmelikhuijzen},
  journal={Peptides},
  year={1992},
  volume={13},
  pages={851-857}
}

The expansion behaviour of sea anemones may be coordinated by two inhibitory neuropeptides, Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide

TLDR
It is hypothesize that nerve cells that release Antho-KAamide andAntho-RIamide are involved in the expansion phase of feeding behaviour in sea anemones.

Neuropeptides in cnidarians1

Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system. In the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians, peptides play important roles as neurotransmitters or neurohormones. So far, we have

Neurohormones and Neurohormone Receptors in Invertebrates

TLDR
The results suggested that glycoprotein hormones and possibly all the processes that are mediated by these types of receptors are conserved throughout the animal kingdom, from cnidarians to mammals.

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TLDR
The evidence obtained so far suggests that hydra contains a large number of peptide signal molecules involved in regulating developmental or other processes in cnidaria, which can be isolated and their functions examined systematically with the new approach developed in this study.

Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

TLDR
FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide are described, suggesting the importance of these peptides in both developmental and physiological processes.

A comparative genomics study of neuropeptide genes in the cnidarian subclasses Hexacorallia and Ceriantharia

TLDR
An annotated the neuropeptide preprohormone genes of twenty species belonging to the subclass Hexacorallia or Ceriantharia (Anthozoa: Cnidaria), using thirty-seven publicly accessible genome or transcriptome databases to find N-phenyllactyl-peptides appear to be confined to the hexacor allian order Actiniaria and do not occur in other cnidarians.

References

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Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group.

TLDR
It is proposed that the L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.

Isolation of pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (Antho-RFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anemones.

TLDR
Three different methods established that the structure of the Anthopleura RFamide peptide (Antho- RFamide) is pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2, which is proposed that Antho-RFamide is a transmitter at neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones.

Coelenterate Neuropeptides: Structure, Action and Biosynthesis

TLDR
The biosynthetic machinery for neuropeptides in coelenterates, the lowest animal group having a nervous system, is already very efficient and similar to that of higher invertebrates, such as molluscs and insects, and vertebrates.

Effects of three anthozoan neuropeptides, Antho-RWamide I, Antho-RWamide II and Antho-RFamide, on slow muscles from sea anemones.

TLDR
It is concluded that the Antho-RWamides may be neurotransmitters at some neuromuscular synapses in sea anemones and act directly on endodermal muscles.

OPPOSITE ACTIONS OF THE ANTHOZOAN NEUROPEPTIDE Antho-RNamide ON ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLE GROUPS IN SEA ANEMONES

TLDR
A fourth neuropeptide from sea anemones is considered, Antho-RNamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2) (Grimmelikhuijzen et al. 1990), and it is shown that it has opposite actions on adjacent antagonistic muscles in seaAnemones.

Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones.

  • K. TatemotoV. Mutt
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1978
TLDR
In the present work the COOH-terminal fragments of polypeptides containing characteristic alpha-amide groups were released enzymatically and then converted into the fluorescent dansyl derivatives, which were identified by thin-layer chromatography.