To isolate cDNA clones encoding novel UGT2B enzymes, human prostate and LNCaP cell cDNA libraries were screened using a pool of steroid-specific UGT2B cDNA probes. In approximately 10(6) recombinants, we isolated 3 cDNA clones of 2.1 kilobases that encode a novel UGT2B enzyme. UGT2B17 is 95% identical with UGT2B15 and 91% identical with UGT2B8. Primary structure analysis of UGT2B17 based on the nucleotide sequence revealed a putative amino-terminal membrane insertion signal peptide, a carboxyl-terminal membrane-spanning region, and three potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites. UGT2B17 cloned in the pBK-CMV expression vector was transfected into HK293 cells to obtain a stable clonal cell line expressing a high level of the active 53-kDa UGT2B17 enzyme. Of the over 60 endogenous and exogenous substances tested, 25 compounds revealed reactivity. The major substrates are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone > androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol (3alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT). The apparent Km values obtained with tritiated steroids in intact cells were 0.4 microM for ADT, 0.7 microM for dihydrotestosterone, 1.0 microM for 3alpha-diol, and 3.4 microM for testosterone. Southern blot analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products revealed expression of UGT2B17 mRNA in various tissues including the liver, kidney, testis, uterus, placenta, mammary gland, adrenal gland, skin, and prostate. UGT2B17 is the first human uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase enzyme expressed in extrahepatic tissues to have a specificity for ADT as well as testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and 3alpha-diol.