A bacterium tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. was isolated from a laboratory aquifer column in which toluene was degraded under denitrifying conditions. The organism mineralized toluene in pure culture in the absence of molecular oxygen. In carbon balance studies using [ring-UL-14C]toluene, more than 50% of the radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Nitrate and nitrous oxide served as electron acceptors for toluene mineralization. The organism was also able to degrade m-xylene, benzoate, benzaldehyde, p-cresol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoate and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid in the absence of molecular oxygen.