Ischemic penumbra

  title={Ischemic penumbra},
  author={Antoine M. Hakim},
  pages={S44 - S46}
The concept of ischemic penumbra has extended our understanding of the focal ischemic process and in many ways has revitalized our research. Simply stated, the penumbra is the part of the brain that is sandwiched between brain regions committed to die and those that receive enough blood to communicate. Therefore, it is ischemic brain tissue that has just enough energy to survive for a short time but not enough to communicate and function. The life expectancy of the penumbra is short. Although… 
Experimental and human ischaemia: is the penumbra present in human ischaemic stroke?
It seems that the penumbra--the therapeutic window or risk zone--in human probably occurs only in some cases, and may be one of numerous reasons for the limited effectiveness of ischaemic stroke therapy.
Acute Stroke Therapy: Highlighting the Ischemic Penumbra
In this chapter, the basic concept of ischemic penumbra is examined and this is followed by the discussion of the identification and evolution of penumbral tissue in animal stroke models and stroke patients.
Oxygen or cooling, to make a decision after acute ischemia stroke
Based on which, the combination of NBO and hypothermia may be an ideal early stroke treatment to preserve the ischemic penumbra, there is an urge for large randomized controlled trials to address the effect.
Reduction of cerebral infarction using the third circulation
Fluorochemical emulsion delivery of oxygen and nutrients directly to the brain by means of ventriculocisternal perfusion is a viable treatment alternative for cerebral ischemia and may control elevations in intracranial pressure following stroke.
Transplantation for stroke
The future of brain repair for stroke is likely to require some form of combination therapy designed to replace the lost cells and supporting structure, attract new blood supply, support and enhance intrinsic repair and plasticity mechanisms.
Ventriculo-lumbar perfusion in acute ischemic stroke
It is technically feasible and safe to establish a ventriculo-lumbar perfusion pathway using a specially designed lumbar drainage catheter and to control intracranial pressure while perfusing large volumes of OFNE.
Sequential and spatial profiles of apoptosis in ischemic penumbra after two-vein occlusion in rats.
After vein occlusion, apoptosis appeared sequentially and widely in cortical lesions considered to be the penumbra, and control of apoptosis would be expected to offer a therapeutic window for treatment of venous infarction.
Temporal profile of ultrastructural changes in cortical neurones after a compression lesion.
The results show that a compression lesion is a useful model for studying ultrastructural changes in injured cells and might be the time period during which injured, but still viable, neurons can be targets for acute treatment.


Neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis: An analysis of 324 consecutive patients at the Mayo Clinic
Neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis was studied by reviewing the charts of 324 consecutive patients in whom the diagnosis was made at the Mayo Clinic, finding that the second, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves were most frequently affected.
Postischemic Blockade of AMPA but Not NMDA Receptors Mitigates Neuronal Damage in the Rat Brain following Transient Severe Cerebral Ischemia
  • B. Nellgård, T. Wieloch
  • Biology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 1992
It is demonstrated that AMPA but not NMDA receptor antagonists decrease neuronal damage following transient severe cerebral ischemia in the rat and that the protection by NBQX may be dependent on the severity of the ischemic insult.
Lan‐1: A Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line With M1 and M3 Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes Coupled to Intracellular Ca2+ Elevation and Lacking Ca2+ Channels Activated by Membrane Depolarization
The LAN‐1 clone, a cell line derived from a human neuroblastoma, possesses muscarinic receptors and appears to lack caffeine‐sensitive Ca2+ stores, because the methylxanthine was unable to elicit intracellular Ca2- mobilization, under basal conditions, after a subthreshold concentration of CCh, or after thapsigargin.
Normalization of impaired glucose tolerance by the short-acting hypoglycemic agent calcium (2S)-2-benzyl-3-(cis-hexahydro-2-isoindolinylcarbonyl)propionate dihydrate (KAD-1229) in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats.
The data indicated that the rapid- and short-acting efficacy of KAD-1229 would be beneficial and sufficient to control postprandial plasma glucose in NIDDM rats.
Transgenic and Knock‐out Mice: Models of Neurological Disease
The most popular techniques for generating specific germ line mutations in vivo are reviewed and the impact of various transgenic models on the study of neurodegenerative diseases is discussed.
Ethnocentrism in nursing.
  • J. Boyd
  • Psychology, Medicine
    RANF review
  • 1977