Is there logic in the placebo?

  title={Is there logic in the placebo?},
  author={Peter Christian G{\o}tzsche},
  journal={The Lancet},

Meaning and an Overview of the Placebo Effect

  • H. Brody
  • Psychology
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2018
The placebo effect can be defined as a bodily change due to the symbolic effects of a treatment or treatment situation that can then be explained by the mental processes of expectancy or conditioning and their effect on specific neuro-chemical processes that bring about end-organ changes.

Rethinking placebo in psychiatry: the range of placebo effects †

The role of placebo in the pharmacotherapy of depression and complementary and alternative medicine is discussed, and the ‘efficacy paradox’ (that placebo treatments can have larger effects than ‘evidence-based treatments’) is introduced.

The role of medication beliefs in side effects

The claim that non-pharmacological factors like medication beliefs can influence side effect reporting is supported by research on the nocebo effect and findings from a feasibility study of interventions to modify unhelpful medication beliefs in order to reduce side effect attribution are presented.

Evidence-based medicine, "placebos" and the homeopathy controversy

The main conclusion is that the Science and Technology Committee have understated their evidential arguments, by ignoring mechanistic evidence for whether homeopathic treatments are effective, and they have overstated their ethical arguments, they do not provide good reasons to remove provision of homeopathic treatment through the NHS.

Effect of acupuncture on brain regions modulation of mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of MCI patients treated with acupuncture was conducted to summarize the effects of acupuncture on the modulation of MCi brain regions from a neuroimaging perspective and showed that acupuncture therapy has a modulating effect on the brain regions ofMCI patients.

Beliefs About Medicines Predict Side-Effects of Placebo Modafinil.

Beliefs about medication are potentially modifiable predictors of the nocebo effect and provide insight into side-effect reports to placebo and, potentially, active treatment.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the placebo effect in panic disorder: Implications for research and clinical practice

A substantial placebo effect size was observed in panic disorder, which was more prominent for some aspects of panic disorder psychopathology than for others and was correlated with the source of the assessment and publication year.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies on Acupuncture Therapy in Depression: A Systematic Review

The most consistent functional MRI (fMRI) results showed increased N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios, increased ALFF in the right precuneus, decreased AL FF in the inferior frontal gyrus, and increased FC of the anterior cingulate cortex.

Clinical trials in allergen immunotherapy in the age group of children and adolescents: current concepts and future needs

An international group of experts in the field of AIT has thoroughly reviewed and discussed current concepts and provided an outlook on further improvement especially in the age group of children and adolescents.



The placebo: from specificity to the non-specific and back

  • M. Shepherd
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological Medicine
  • 1993
The actions and effects of placebos are discussed in relation to the specific/non-specific dichotomy with particular reference to both pharmacological and psychological modes of treatment.

Implications of placebo theory for clinical research and practice in pain management

The importance of investigating the placebo effect in its own right is advocated in order to better understand the long-neglected psychological aspects of the therapeutic transaction.

Measuring patients' views: the optimum outcome measure.

  • J. Ware
  • Medicine, Political Science
  • 1993
The London Ambulance Service's new management must make an unequivocal commitment to both basic and extended training and the establishment of systematic clinical audit to build on the progress made to date.