Is there an ideal interpregnancy interval after a live birth, miscarriage or other adverse pregnancy outcomes?

@article{Sholapurkar2010IsTA,
  title={Is there an ideal interpregnancy interval after a live birth, miscarriage or other adverse pregnancy outcomes?},
  author={Shashikant L Sholapurkar},
  journal={Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology},
  year={2010},
  volume={30},
  pages={107 - 110}
}
  • S. Sholapurkar
  • Published 1 February 2010
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Advice given to women regarding optimum interpregnancy interval (IPI) following spontaneous miscarriage remains controversial. There is robust evidence from many studies including a meta-analysis that after full term or pre-term delivery, IPIs of <18 months and >5 years are associated with increased risk of poor perinatal and maternal outcome. However, there is paucity of good studies to infer the effect of IPI after a spontaneous miscarriage, which is a relatively common event. The results… 
Interpregnancy Interval after Miscarriage: Less than Six Months vs. Greater than Six Months
TLDR
Cutting interpregnancy interval to less than 6 months after spontaneous abortion is shown to be associated with a higher live birth rate and fewer complications.
Interpregnancy interval and obstetrical complications.
TLDR
The accumulated data allow for the reevaluation of current IPI recommendations and management guidelines for women in general and among subpopulations with special circumstances, and suggests lowering the current minimal IPI recommendation to only 18 months.
Long interpregnancy interval and adverse perinatal outcomes: A retrospective cohort study
TLDR
Investigation of the association between the interpregnancy interval (IPI) and adverse perinatal outcomes indicates that a longer IPI is associated with a higher risk of adverse per inatal outcomes and an IPI of ≥120 mon appears to be independently associated with an elevated risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and premature membrane rupture.
Relationship between interpregnancy interval and birth defects in Washington State
TLDR
A J-shaped relationship between IPI and risk of having an infant with a birth defect is observed; as this is one of the first studies to evaluate this association, confirmatory studies are needed.
The duration of the interpregnancy interval in multiparous women and maternal weight gain between pregnancies: findings from a UK population-based cohort
TLDR
An interval of 12–23 months is associated with the lowest risk of starting the second pregnancy with a higher body weight accounting for age, and birth spacing may merit exploration as a factor impacting on perinatal morbidity in countries with high prevalence of maternal obesity.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Definitions, Epidemiology, and Prognosis
TLDR
The epidemiologic characteristics of patients with RPL including the etiologies and the impact on the prognosis are discussed including the endocrine abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, uterine anomalies, and genetic factors.
Interpregnancy interval after live birth or pregnancy termination and estimated risk of preterm birth: a retrospective cohort study
  • BZ Shachar, J. Mayo, G. Shaw
  • Medicine, Psychology
    BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
  • 2016
We assessed whether interpregnancy interval (IPI) length after live birth and after pregnancy termination was associated with preterm birth (PTB).
Family planning and contraceptive practices among parturients in a cottage hospital in South-West Nigeria.
TLDR
The high parity among women is a consequence of low child survival and increasing inter-pregnancy interval and increasing uptake of contraceptives might improve pregnancy outcome and improve the health of the woman.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 17 REFERENCES
Relevance of the miscarriage-new pregnancy interval
TLDR
Results showed that there are no proven reasons to recommend a waiting period between a miscarriage and a subsequent pregnancy, because the R-risk was around 20% irrespective of interval duration.
Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes.
TLDR
The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months, and shorter and longer interp pregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks.
Risk of preterm delivery, low birthweight and growth retardation following spontaneous abortion: a registry-based study in Denmark.
TLDR
Spontaneous abortion is associated with preterm delivery (both <34 and <37 weeks) in the subsequent pregnancy and women who become pregnant following an abortion should receive special attention in the antenatal clinics.
Effects of birth spacing on maternal health: a systematic review.
Effect of Interpregnancy Interval on Infant Low Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Michigan Maternally Linked Birth Database
  • B. Zhu, T. Le
  • Medicine
    Maternal and Child Health Journal
  • 2004
TLDR
These data suggest that spacing pregnancies appropriately could be used as a strategy for preventing LBW, and show that the risk for LBW was lowest when the interpregnancy interval was 18–23 months, and increased with shorter or longer intervals.
Birth intervals and perinatal health: an investigation of three hypotheses.
  • J. Miller
  • Medicine
    Family planning perspectives
  • 1991
TLDR
This analysis uses data from Hungary, Sweden and the United States to investigate the factors contributing to the high health risks observed among infants born within 12 months of the preceding birth, and suggests that avoidance of birth intervals of less than two years could be expected to effect a 5-10 percent decreased risk of low birth weight and neonatal death.
Effect of the interpregnancy interval after an abortion on maternal and perinatal health in Latin America
Effects of interpregnancy interval and outcome of the preceding pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes in Matlab, Bangladesh
TLDR
To estimate the effects on pregnancy outcomes of the duration of the preceding interpregnancy interval and type of pregnancy outcome that began the interval, a large random sample of women was selected.
A new definition of maternal depletion syndrome.
TLDR
The empirical application of this approach should permit the testing of the existence of maternal depletion syndrome in the developing world, and the distinction between populations where family planning will alleviate maternal depletion and those in which an improved diet is also necessary.
...
...